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what is a cytoskeleton?
A protein network inside a cell
Why is ongoing synthesis of ATP necessary for cell survival?
For ion pumping and other cellular processes
main principle of fluid mosaic model?
proteins float in a fluid lipid bilayer.
Transport channels, receptors, and cell adhesion molecules all are found in cell membranes and they are made primarily of what?
what is function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum
lipid synthesis and metabolism
Which form of molecular transport requires energy in the form of ATP?
A white blood cell can ingest bacteria or cellular debris through what process?
The cellular structure that contains DNA
Signaling molecules such as hormones and growth factors influence their target cells by binding to what?
what cellular processes can operate without oxygen?
what is lysosome?
A membrane-bound bag of degradative enzymes within a cell
Movement of water through a membrane that separates two compartments with unequal concentration
Under aerobic conditions, what process produces most of the energy for the cell?
chief function of the Golgi apparatus
packaging proteins into secretory vesicles.
function of ribosome?
reduction in cell size and function; wasting
increase in cell size or function
abnormal increase or multiplication of normal cells in normal arrangement in tissues
transformation of one tissue to another fully differentiated tissue form
alteration in cell growth where cell morphology is variable and disorderly
causes of atrophy?
- nutrient starvation
- interruption of endocrine signals
- persistant cell injury
example of hypertrophy?
increase in skeletal muscle mass and strength in response to repeated exercise in
cells that can undergo hyperplasia?
cells capable of mitotic division
why metaplasia occurs?
adaptation to persistant injury, with the replacement cell type better able to tolerate the injurious stimulation
why is dysplasia a worrisome change in cells?
the potential to transform into cancerous cells adn are regarded as preneoplastic lesions
a characteristic of motion, change or action
cause of cell swelling?
reversible injuries and early stages of irreversible injury
causes of intracellular accumulation?
- excess amount of normal intracellular substances such as fat
- accumulation of abnormal substances produced by cell beause of faulty metabolism or synthesis
- accumulation of pigments adn partricles that the cell is unable to degrade.
normal intracellular substances that accumulate in injured cells?
what is fatty liver? cause?
fatty liver is lipid accumulation in liver usually associated with too much alcohol r/t direct toxic effets as well as metabolism of alcohol instead of fat.
cause of suntan?
- melanin is skin pigmentation
- suntan is an accumulation of melanin in the skin
source of hemosiderin and bilirubin?
derived from hemoglobin
what is result of inhaled dust adn accumulated in lung tissue?
cause chronic inflammatory reactions in lung which result in destruction of pulmonary alveoli and capillaries and formation of scar tissue
How can calcification of a heart valve or an arteriole cause dysfunction?
it can cause obstruction to blood flow through heart or interfere with valve closing. calcification of blood vessels may ressult in narrowing of vesssels and insufficient blood flow to distal tissues.
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