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2011-01-12 11:44:02
Chem ch1

Chem class spring 2011
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  1. Matter
    Anything that takes up space and has mass
  2. Mass
    is a measure of the quantity of matter
  3. 2 classifications of matter
    Pure substance

  4. Pure substance
    matter that has a constant composition

    Rare in this world (aluminum in a soda can)
  5. 2 types of pure substances
    1-elements--cannot be broken down by chemical reaction -only one type of atom (only zinc or only copper) -building blocks of matter

    • 2-compounds--made of more than one type of atom
    • -can be broken down by chemcial reaction
    • -has specific formual (h20)
  6. Mixtures
    two or more pure substances and may vary in composition
  7. 2 types of mixtures
    1-Homogeneous mixture--has uniform composition throughtout called solution(often clear..salt water)

    • 2-Heterogeneous mixture--not uniform throughtout
    • (salt, pepper, and water)
  8. elements
    • -buildingblocks of matter
    • -116 known elements, 83 naturally found (H, Mg, Zn)
    • -classified in 2 categories:
    • Metal & Nonmetal (by is shine & abaility to conduct electricity)
  9. Periodic tabel
    • Columns=groups/families
    • rows=periods

    • metals:shiny, conduct heat/electricity
    • nonmetals:dull, insulators
  10. Compound
    substances composed of 2 or more elements combined in a definite proportion H20, C2H60, Nacl
  11. atoms
    smallest unit of an element
  12. molecule
    • smallest unit of a compound,
    • -made up of 2 or more atoms bond together

  13. three physical states of matter
    • 1)SOLID
    • 2)LIQUID
    • 3)GAS
  14. Solid
    • (S)
    • -fixed shape, fixed volume
    • -cannot be compressed unless a lot of force applied
    • -particles(atoms/molecules) are fixed in shape (very little motion)
  15. Liquid
    • (l)
    • -indefinite shape, takes shape of the container
    • -fixed volume, cant be compressed
    • -particles NOT in fixed position (constinantly moving)
  16. Gas
    • (g)
    • -indefinite shape, takes shape of container (balloon)
    • -indefinite volume, can be compressed(expand/contract to fill the container)
    • -particles are far apart in rapid motion
  17. Aqueous(aq)
    Dissolved in water (sugar water)
  18. Physical property vs chemical property

    Physical-property is something we can observe without changing the composition (cutting into smaller pieces) liquid to a gas ex.odor,taste,hardness,mass,volume,density,temp, conductivity

    Chemical-one or more substances converted to into one or more new substances (color change of pennies over time)
  19. quantitative properties
    • Tempertature
    • mass
    • volume
    • density
  20. Significant Figures
    Number of MEANINGFUL digits in a measurement

    • -If decimal point; #>1, all digits sigs
    • 4.23=3 sigs
    • 3.400=4 sigs
    • 20.000=5 sigs
    • -If #<1, signific. digits start w/ first non zero # after decimal point
    • 0.004123=4 sigs
    • 0.0210=3 sigs