Pharm Unit I and II

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Pharm Unit I and II
2011-01-12 11:23:52
Introductory Pharmacology

Introductory Pharmacology
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  1. Pharmacology
    The study of drugs that alter functionson of living organisms
  2. Drug Therapy
    Use of drugs to prevent, diagnose, or treat signs, symptoms, and disease processes
  3. Medications
    Drugs given for therapuetic purposes
  4. Local Effects of Medications
    Act at the site of application
  5. Systemic Effects of Medications
    Taken into the body, circulated via the bloodstream to sites of action, and eventually eliminated from the body
  6. Drug Sources
    • Plants
    • Animals
    • Minerals
    • Synthetic compounds
  7. Drug Classifications are Classified according to
    • specific body systems
    • therapuetic uses
    • chemical characterisitics
  8. Prototypes
    • Individual drugs that represent groups of drugs
    • Often the first drug os a particular group to be developed i.e. Morphine, Penicillin
  9. Drug Names can be the
    • Generic Name
    • Trade or Brand Name
    • Chemical Name
  10. Chemical Name
    Describes the drugs chemical compostion and molecular structure
  11. Generic Name
    The name given by the United States Adopted Name Council
  12. Trade Name
    The drugs registered trade mark. Use of this name is restricted
  13. What are the two routes to access therapuetic drugs
    • Prescription
    • Over-the-Counter
  14. Comprehensive Drug Abude Prevention and Control Act Title II:Controlled Substances Act.
    Regulates maufacturing and distrubution of Nartcotics,depressants, stimulants, hallucinogents, anabolic steroids
  15. Drug Enforcement Administration
    • Enforces Controlled Substances Act
    • Registers individuals aned companies legally empowered to handle controlled substances
    • Regulates documentation and handling of controlled substances
  16. Food and Drug Administration
    • Responsible for ensuring safety and efficacy of drugs before they can be marketed
    • Since 1962, specific testing standards must be applied
    • Several phases of testing
    • Approves many new drugs anuually
    • Many change status of drugs from precription to OTC
  17. Pharmacokinetics
    Drug movement through the body to reach sites of action, metabolism, and excreation.
  18. Processes involved in pharmacokinetics
    • Absorption
    • Distribution
    • Metabolism
    • Excreation
  19. Onset of drug action is determined by
    the rate of absorption
  20. What factors affect rate and extent of drug absorption
    • Dosage form
    • Route of administration
    • Administration site blood flow
    • GI function
  21. Routes of Administration
    • Enteral
    • Parenteral
    • Topical
  22. Enteral Route
    • The drug is absorbed into systemic circulation through the oral, gastic mucosa, the small intestine, or rectum.
    • Oral
    • Sublingual
    • Buccal
    • Rectal
  23. First-Pass Effect
    The metabolism of a drug and its passage from the liver into the circulation. Less drug reaches circulation.
  24. Parenteral Route
    • IV(fastest)
    • IM
    • Sub-Q
    • Intradermal
    • Sublingual
  25. Topical Route
    • Skin
    • Eyes
    • Ears
    • Nose
    • Lungs
    • Vagina
  26. Distubution Process
    Drugs are carried by blood and tissue fluids to action sites, metabolism sites, and excretion sites. Depends on adequacy of blood circulation.
  27. The Distribution process is affected by
    • Protein binding
    • Blood-brain barrier
    • Pregnancy
    • Lactation
    • Areas of rapid distribution: heart, liver, kidneys, and brain
    • Areas of slow distribution: muscle, skin, and fat.
  28. Metabolic Process
    Method by which drugs are inactivated or biotransformed by the body
  29. Drugs changed to what in metabolic process
    • Inactive metabolites
    • Active Metabolites
    • Prodrugs
  30. Drug-metabolizing enzymes are located within
    • Kidneys
    • Liver
    • RBC
    • Plasma
    • Lungs
    • GI mucosa
  31. Factors tha affect drug metabolism
    • Enzyme Induction
    • Enzyme Inhibition
    • Cardiovascular dysfunction
    • Renal insufficency
    • Starvation