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3 categories of enzymatic regulatory inhibition
feedback, reversible, irreversible
how does feedback inhibition regulate an enzymatic process?
by using the end product as an allosteric inhibitor to the enzyme that catalyzing the rxn
2 types of reversible inhibitors?
competitive and non-competitive
how can a non-competitive inhibitor effect be reversed
through adding of a compound that have a greater affinity for the inhibitor than the enzyme
inactive form of enzyme
how is zymogen activated? example?
it's activated when a part of it is cleaved of. as in pepsinogen and chymotrypsinogen.
what are the energy carrier molecules for a cell's metabolic process?
ATP, NAD+, NADP+, and FAD
how do ATP, NAD+, NADP+, and FAD store energy?
ATP in high energy phosphate bonds.the rest store in hight potential electrons.
net reaction of glycolysis
glucose +2ADP+2Pi+2NAD+-->2 Pyruvate+2ATP+2NADH+2H++2H2O
net gain of ATP in cellular respiration
3 stages of cellular respiration
pyruvate decarboxylation, kreb cycle, electron transport chain
how many ATP, NADH and FADH are created in one kreb cycle?
1 ATP, 3 NADH, 1 FADH
molecular electron carrier in oxidative phophorylation
in what phase of meiosis would one find a tetrad?
what is the sequence of development of a mature sperm cell
primary spermatid, 2ndary spermatid, spermatocyte, spermatozoa,
enzyme containing cap-like structure on head of sperm
corona radiata and zona pellucida?
corona radiata is the outer layer of cells that surrounds the ovum. zona pellucida is the innger layer of cell surrounding the ovum.
order the following embryonic stages:
blastula, neurula, morula, gastrula, zygote
zygote, morula, blastula, gastrula, neurula
3 primary germ layers
ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm
match following structure with stage of development in which they first appear:
1. inner cell mass
structures from ectoderm
integument, lens of eye, nervous system
structure from endoderm
epithelial lining of digestive/ resp tracts, parts of liver, pancreas, thyroid, and bladder
structure from mesoderm
mucsloskeletal system, circulatory system, connective tissues, excretory system, ad gonads
function of ductus venosus?
shunt blood away from fetal liver
function of foramen ovale?
divert blood away from pulmonary arteries into left atrium
function of ductus arteriosus?
shunts blood directly from pulmonary artery into aorta
what trimester do skeleton and organs form
placenta originate from what structure?
from the chorion
2 major component of skeleton
cartilage and bones
the transformation of mesechymal tissue into bone