Neuro Lecture 1
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What are the three basic functions of the nervous system?
Define sensory receptors
Specialized non-neural cells, detect energy changes in the environment
Define afferent pathways
Groups of neurons conveying sensory information toward and within the CNS (labeled line)
- Interpreting the meaning of the energy changes
- Performed by the cerebral cortex
Define "action" of the nervous system
Planning and producing purposeful acts designed to accomplish a goal (coordinated motor output)
What is the somatic division of sensation in charge of?
Senses and responds to changes in the external environment (sensory and motor limbs)
What is the function of the visceral subdivision?
Maintains the environment inside the body within physoligical limits (homeostasis) (sensory and motor limbs)
Name the general somatic sensory inputs
Touch, pain, pressure, vibration, temperature, and proprioception in skin, body walls, limbs
What are specialized somatic sensory inputs?
Hearing, equilibrium, vision, smell
What are general visceral sensory inputs?
Stretch, pain, temperature, chemical changes, and irritation in viscera; nausea and hunger
What are specialized visercal sensations?
Define Functional System:
A group of nerouns that coalesce to control a particular aspect of behavior.
What is the input in the Functional System?
Specialized receptors and dedicated projection pathways
What is the control center in the Functional System?
Group of central neurons that perceive and respond to the specialized information
What is the function of Output for the Functional System?
Provides the control center with access to effector organs
Longitudinal systems are:
(right brain controls left body and vice versa)
Segmental systems are:
What is serial processing?
One-way pathway. First origination is 1st order neuron. Synapse with 2nd neuron is 2nd order neuron, etc.
What is Parallel Processing?
One stimulus can synapse to multiple neurons at once to elicit wide spread response.
Transmitting similar types of information located in the same position on different levels
Somatotopoic organization is also known as the:
Define Phylogenetic organization
- Structures concerned with sustaining life are located deep in the core of the brain
- Fastest and most highly differentiated systems are located on the surface
Name the three layers of meninges
- Dura mater
- Arachnoid mater
- Pia mater
Name the 7 major anatomic subdivisions of the CNS
- Spinal Cord
- Diencephalon (thalamus and hypothalamus)
- Cerebral hemispheres
Describe the conus medullaris
The end of the spinal "cord" that forms a cone shape. Located in the upper lumber spine.
Describe the Cauda Equina
Nerve roots that come off the spinal cord at the conus medullaris that innervate the lower quarter
Describe the filum terminale
The filum terminale internum is a continuation of the pia mater from the conus medullaris that attaches the end of the spinal cord to the dura mater. The filum terminale externum is an extension of the dura mater that anchors the spinal cord to the coccyx.
What is the brainstem a conduit for?
What three structures are included in the brainstem?
medulla, pons, midbrain
What 4 functions does the brainstem perform?
- Sensory and motor functions of head (cranial nerves)
- Special senses
- Longitudinal systems
- Reticular formation
What is in the reticular formation?
Life support center and arousal center
Where do cortical spinal fibers cross in the medulla?
What are the four functions of the cerebellum?
- Controls force and range of movement
- Comparator for error detection
- Motor learning
What are the names of the dysfunctions a person suffers after consumed alcohol has affected the cerebullum?
- Ataxia (poor motor control)
- Dysarthria (slurred speech)
- Nystagmus (shaking eyes)
- Vestibular occular reflex (speed detection)
- Dysmetria (Errors in grading range and force production)
- Tremors (der)
What is the job of the Thalamus?
Sensory relay station to cerebral cortex
What is the job of the Hypothalamus?
- Autonomic, Endocrine, Visceral Function
- Regulates body temp, hunger, thirst, limbic (emotional)
What is the job of the frontal lobe?
- Judgement, planning, personality. Many motor functions including motor planning. Has cell bodies for UMN's.
- Precentral gyrus is primary motor cortex
What is the job of the parietal lobe?
- Pereception and integration of spatial awareness and sensation.
- Post central gyrus is the primary somatosensory cortex (touch, proprioception)
What is the job for the temporal lobe?
Hearing, learning, memory, emotions.
Where is the first visual information received?
Where is the primary auditory area?
In the temporal lobe, just ventral to the lateral sulcus.
Where is the primary visual cortex?
In the occipital lobe, most posterior
What is Broca's area in charge of?
Ability to express language. If damaged can cause expressive aphasia
What is Wernicke's area in charge of?
Can speak language but can't comprehend. Words spoken are acutal words but have no proper syntax.
What is the frontal assocation area in charge of?
- Problem solving
What is the parietal association area in charge of?
- Understanding speech
- Using words
What is the temporal association area in charge of?
- Interpretation of sensory experience
- Memory of visual & auditory patterns
What does the cingulate gyrus control?
Where is the cingulate gyrus located?
Surrounding the corpus callosum
Name some facts about the internal capsule
- Contains cortical spinal tracts
- Contains sensory fibers
- Topographically organized
- Distinctly somatotopically organized
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