AH CH1: The problem of Government

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jpnelson35
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AH CH1: The problem of Government
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2011-01-12 16:56:14
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BYU American Heritage
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taken from flashcardmachine.com AH CH1: The problem of Government
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  1. sovereignty
    ultimate political power--having the final say.
  2. human predicament
    the cycle from tyranny to anarchy to which sovereign power and its ill effects give rise. tyranny to revolution to anarchy to competing groups to tyranny.
  3. despot
    a ruler exercising absolute power
  4. revolution
    a means of removing someone from power
  5. tyranny
    absolute power centralized in one pwerson (or small group)
  6. anarchy
    • no one person (or group) maintains absolute power. characterized by mass disorder caused by failure to agree on a common course of
    • actions.
  7. competitng groups
    groups that in a state of anarchy fight for supreme power and control.
  8. good society
    • reasonably stable and prosperous society without an oppressive tyranny. usually includes peace, respect, vibrant culture, and
    • personal freedom to live the way on chooses.
  9. plato
    • 427- 347 BC
    • Greek Philosopher which extolled civic virtue and the necessity of arete.
  10. arete
    • virtue as extolled in plato's rebulic.
    • backbone of rebulican morality. striving for excellence.
  11. political legitimacy
    ruling by a sanction higher than stark necessity: sanction may stem from divine right wisdom or consent.
  12. king james I
    1566-1625. claimed political legitimacy through a "divine right of kings"
  13. divine right of kings
    political theory that royal lines are established by god and that kinds rule by divine decree.
  14. theocracy
    divinely inspired rule or rule by religion
  15. aristocracy
    rule based on distinguished or wise ancestors and heritage
  16. Greek freedom
    the privilege of taking part in the political process and observing society's rules.
  17. human nature
    the fundamental disposition of humans that determines their behavior.
  18. four cardinal virtues
    wisdom, courage, temperance, and justice
  19. Christian virtues
    Meekness, patience, humility, long suffering, compassion, love for one's neighbor.
  20. European Enlightenment
    • 18th century philosophical movement that proposed individual self interest, rather than Greek virtue or Christian humility, as the
    • motivating factor in human behavior.
  21. autocracy
    • one of the four alternative forms of government; sees people as children in need of a carefully controlled environment provided by
    • government.
  22. classical republicanism
    one of 4 alternative forms of government. sees people as mostly good but corruptible and so government should have restricted power and try to encourage a good moral climate.
  23. Bill of Rights
    first ten amendments to the constitution regarding basic protections of rights from the government, passed in response to the anti-federalist argument against the initial constitution.
  24. libertarianism
    one of the four alternatives forms of government; sees the most important value as individual freedom and holds that government should only protect that freedom and nothing more.
  25. liberalism
    one fo the four alternative forms of government. sees people in the most favorable light, but institutions or other influences can corrupt them so government is necessary to protect them from such corruption.
  26. Thomas Jefferson
    • Third President. Principal author of the Declaration of Independence.
    • Political philosopher promoted classical liberalism, republicanism, and the separation of church and state, he was the author of the virginia statute from religious freedom which was the basis for the establishment clause.
  27. sturcture
    rules and restrictions
  28. Founders Toolbox
    Structure. Participation. Law. Custom and Tradition. Moral Sense. Founding Myths. Leadership.
  29. Polis
    City or city-state, often self-governed by its citizens as the ancient Greek city-states were.
  30. Social Compact
    The social concept of a group of autonomous individuals living in a state of nature, making a common agreement about the sort of political world they want to live in.
  31. State of Nature
    • Hypothetical condition assumed to exist in the absence of government where human beings live in "complete freedom and general
    • equality.
  32. Christopher Columbus
    • 1451-1506
    • Genoese mariner who discovered the Americas while searching for a new trade route to india.
  33. Corporate communities
    Colonial Settlements established for economic or financial purposes by various companies. Although usually chartered by the crown, their remote circumstances helped foster the idea and practice of self-governance. Virginia Company. Charter signed by James I 1606. Jamestown.

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