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What is geography?
Geography is the study of the earth. It includes 4 things. They are landforms, climate, natural resources and people.
Why do historians need to study geography?
Because geography effects events in history e.i. wars. One side has an advantage if they know the geography of the area.
How does the natural environment effect the way different people lived?
If effected the way different people lived because people got resources from the natural environment in order to live. ex- Inuits lived in Igloos because the natural resource was ice. Iroquois made longhouses because they had wood.
What are natural resources?
Things occurring in nature that allowed people to live.
What are the different geographical regions of the US?
- Coastal Plains
- Appalachian MountainsHawaiiCanadian ShieldPacific CoastIntermountainRocky MountainsInterior Plains
Why did tribes vary in their lifestyles and cultures?
Because they lived in different area, allowing different natural resources. They formed their lifestyles around these factors.
Plains Indians 1. What are where are the Great Plains. 2. Significance and uses of the Buffalo
- 1. The Great Plains were in central US. The great plains was a hard area to live in because it was very dry with limited natural resources
- 2. Hair- stuffing in pillows
- Horns- knife, cups
- Skull- bowl
- Tongue- hairbrush
- Bones- tools, weapons
- Flesh- food
- Tail- fly swatter
- Hide- blankets, covering
Eastern Woodland Indians 1. Iroquois
2. Natural resources of the area
- 1. Iroquois consisted of 5 groups- Mohawk, Oneida, Cayuga, Onondaga, Seneca.
- 2. They had wood, deer, crops, water, fish
What was the Iroquois League?
Goals? Hiawatha? What was it? How does it work?
The Iroquois League was formed to form all 5 nations into one. It would make them stronger and be able to get along. Hiawatha was the one to start the peace talks and convincing leaders to join the league. It gave all tribes equal power. It allowed all of them to work together as one.
Why did the Europeans star exploring?
Because they wanted more land and power and a quicker route to Asia.
They were Christians who fought in a series of wars in the holy land to gain control of it. It was in the Middle East. When they returned, they brought back fabric, exotic foods and more.
The Europeans wanted to set up missions everywhere to convert more people to Christianity.
Marco Polo was an Italian explorer. He traveled to China and lived there for 20 years. When he returned to Italy, he wrote a book about what he saw. When Europeans read it, it made them want to travel. Marco Polo was important because he was one of the reasons Europeans began to explore the world.
Better and Safer Navigation Equipment?
Another reason the Europeans began to travel more. They could navigate the oceans safer.
Christopher Columbus.. consequences and effects of the journey
Believed Europeans could sail west to get East
Consequences- Natives had land taken away, fighting over the new world, Natives were made into slaves, Natives died from diseases.
Effects- Spain gained the land, Columbus became wealthy and well know, Spain sent more explorers
- 1. They were looking for gold and land
- 2. Cortes conquered the Aztecs and Pizarro conquered the Incas.
- 3. More people wanted to travel to America
Pueblos Presidios, Missions?
- Pueblos- towns, centers of farm and trade. Plaza was in center of town. Houses lined the plaza.
- Presidios- forts where soldiers lived. Had high, thick walls. There were stables, storehouses, and shops. The soldiers lived in barracks.
- Missions- religious settlements. Place to convert Indians to Christianity.
4 social classes in New Spain?
- Peninsulares, Creoles, Mestizos, Indians.
- Peninsulares- born in Spain, highest jobs
- Creoles- born in America to spanish parents. They were wealthy and well educated
- Mestizos- mixed Spanish/Indian heritage. Worked on plantations. In the cities, they were bakers, shoemakers, and carpenters
- Indians- lived in poverty
What was the Northwest Passage?
An imaginary complete water way that went all the way through North America. John Cabot thought he found it.
John Cabot found _______________ while searching for the Northwest Passage.
- An English sailor who sailed for the Dutch
- His ship entered New York Harbor- Hudson River
- The next year, as an English sailor he made a voyage and was abandoned by his crew during it.
Sailed up the St. Lawrence River
Samuel De Champlain
Founded the first New France Colony in Nova Scotia. He built the trading post know as Quebec.
Marquette and Joliet
1. Mississippi River?
2. What parts of North America did France now own?
- 1. In 1673, they explored the Mississippi River
- 2. They owned parts of Canada and Northern US.
Why did people come to the New World?
Because they wanted religious freedom and to have more freedom and land.
Why did England want colonies?
England wanted colonies to gain more power and wealth. They wanted more land than other countries.
What was Roanoke? What happened there?
It was the first attempt of a colony in the New World. Settlers went set it up in Virginia. It was completely lost and nobody knows what happened to it.
What problems did Jamestown face?
- They brought few skilled workers
- They didn't bring women
- They started building in a swamp
- They didn't have any rules/government
What saved Jamestown?
- John Smith introduced the idea of discipline. "No Work, No Food"
- John Rolfe introduced the idea of growing tobacco there.
Effects of the decision to grow tobacco?
- Became a major industry
- Needing slaves to farm the large plantations
- Slaves were introduced
What were the Puritan colonies like?
- Massachusetts Bay Colony
- Very religious- nothing was done on Sundays
- Church was the center of everything
Southern Colonies, Middle Colonies, and New England Colonies?
- Southern Colonies- Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland
- Middle Colonies- New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey
- New England- Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New Hampshire
Why Did CT and RI begin?
They began when Roger Williams (RI) and Thomas Hooker (CT) were banned from Massachusetts Bay Colony. They didn't like how strict it was.
What was the Holy Experiment?
It was an experiment to see if the Quakers could set up a colony in Pennsylvania.
Quakers- What they believed and where did they settle?
They believed in equality and peace for everyone. They settled in Pennsylvania under William Penn.
Wh was James Oglethorpe?
He was an early leader of Georgia. He founded it.
What was the Maryland Acts of Toleration?
It gave religious freedom to people in Maryland. Allowed all Christians religious freedom.
Plantations Backcountry vs. Tidewater
- Backcountry was rocky since it was near the Appalachian Mountains.
- Tidewater was near the coast. It was better for farming.
Steps of the Slave Trade
- 1. Slaves were captured and brought to the west coast of Africa. They were loaded on a ship.
- 2. They went though the Middle Passage in the Atlantic Ocean. 10% of slaves died during this
- 3. They got to America. Slaves were cleaned and sold to new owners.
What was Mercantilism?
A theory that says a nation becomes stronger by building up its gold supply and expanding trade.
How did the Navigation Acts help or hurt America?
They only allowed the colonies to sell to England. Colonies could only buy things from England.
- 1. New England exported livestock, lumber, flour and fish to the West Indies.
- 2. West Indies exported sugar and molasses to New England.
- 3. New England made rum and exported it to Africa with guns, gunpowder, cloth and tools.
- 4. Africa sent slaves to the West Indies.
Who fought in the French and Indian War? Why? Where?
The French and The British fought. They fought over the Ohio River Valley. It took place in Canada and North America.
What was the Albany Plan of Union?
It was a plan to unite all of the colonies to form one central government to make quick decisions during the war.
Treaty of Paris- What did it say and do?
Treaty of Paris gave Canada and French land in America to Britain. As well as the Ohio River Valley. Britain gained Florida and Spain gained land west of the Mississippi River. French lost power. This document ended the war.
What was the Proclamation of 1763?
It was an effect of Pontiac's War. It said colonists could not settle west of the Appalachian Mts. It made colonists angry.
Stamp Act- What was it?
It placed taxes on everyday items. Items carried a stamp to show it's tax. Colonists became angry because they were being taxed without being represented.
What did colonists do to protest?
- Colonists boycotted english goods.
- They killed tax collectors
- attacked public buildings
What was the Quartering Acts?
It said that British soldiers had to stay with colonists and that colonists had to supply for them.
What was the Boston Massacre?
A group of colonists began yelling and throwing ice at a group of soldiers in front of the Boston Customs House. The soldiers fired into the crowd. 5 people died.
What is Propaganda?
It is spreading information in such a way that makes people believe a certain way.
What was the Townshend Acts?
Townshend acts were acts that took away taxes on most things except tea. Colonists were still angry.
What was the Boston Tea Party?
Colonists dumped bags of tea into the Boston Harbor from a vessel. It was protesting the tea act. It caused the Intolerable Acts.
What were the Intolerable Acts?
- It was parliament's response to the Boston Tea Party.
- 1. Boston harbor closed
- 2. Quartering Acts
- 3. Colonists could hold meetings once a year
- 4. British officials charged with crime were charged in Britian
What was fighting at Lexington and Concord?
When british soldiers tried to steal American firearms, fighting broke out in 2 places. The Americans won and decided that they could defeat the British.