Autonomic Nervous system S1M1

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Autonomic Nervous system S1M1
2011-04-14 12:30:42
Nervous system

Nervous System
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  1. How many pairs of spinal typical motor and sensory nerves are there
    29 excluding the first and the last spinal nerves which are atypical
  2. How is the first cervical nerve different
    It is purely motor, has no dorsal root ganglion, and has both somatic and viceral motors.
  3. How is the first coccygeal nerve different
    It is purely sensory with no motor root
  4. What is the lower limit of the dural sac
  5. What is the Filum Terminale Externum
    A continuation of the spinal chord to Coccyx 2
  6. Efferent means
    Away from something
  7. Afferent
  8. General Somatic Efferent (GSE)
    Motor Striated muscle
  9. General Somatic Afferent (GSE)
    Sensory from striated muscle, skin, or joints
  10. General Viseral Efferent (GVE)
    Motor to smooth muscle and glands
  11. General Visceral Afferent (GVA)
    Sensory form smooth muscles and internal organs
  12. How is the Somatic (voluntary) different from the Visceral (Involuntary) nerve arrangement
    Somatic (Voluntary) has one neuron between the CNS and the muscle, or organ. The Visceral (involuntary) always has two.
  13. What is another name for the sympathetic nervous system
    ThoracoLumbar because this is where it originates T1-L2 in the lateral horn
  14. Another name for the parasympathetic is the
    Craniosacral C3, 7, 9, 10; S 2, 3, 4
  15. Where can you find the lateral aka intermediate horn of the spinal chord
    Between T1-L2 and S2-S4
  16. In the thoracic region the lateral horn is composed of
    Preganglionic Sympathetic neurons
  17. In the S2-4 the lateral horn contains
    Preganglionic Parasympathetic neurons
  18. Cell bodies for the somatic and visceral neurons are located
    In the Dorsal Root Ganglion
  19. Why does referred pain occur
    Pain from a visceral structure is referred to a somatic area becuase of their proximity in the DRG
  20. Another name for Visceral nerve
  21. The Enteric Nervous system consists of what organs
    The GI system, salivary glands, and such
  22. Cranial ten nerve is also known as the
    Vegas nerve
  23. Sympathetic effects what functions
    • Fight or flight, Increase heart rate, dialates airways, muscular strength is increased, palms sweat, pupils dialate, hair stands on end
    • Additionally, it slows down less important functions
  24. Where are the preganglionic cell bodies of the sympathetic system
    Spinal chord
  25. What type of fibers are not found in the spinal nerves, and what can we infer from this info
    There are no parasympathetic fibers therefore there are no parasympathetic fibers in the limbs and body wall
  26. What is the grey matter composed of
    Motor neurons, Interneurons, Blood vessels, and supporting cells (Glial)
  27. What is in the white matter
    Descending motor fibers, ascending sensory axons, all of which are encased in myelin sheaths
  28. Where can you find the lateral and intermediate horns of the spinal chord
    T1-L2 and S2-S4
  29. What are the operational differences between the dorsal horn, and the ventral horn of the spinal chord
    The dorsal horn intervates sensory function, and the ventral horn intervates motor function
  30. All sensory fibers must return to the same site as their
    Motor fibers
  31. Where are all of the cell bodies of for sensation from the somatic and visceral structures
    In the DRG
  32. What is the largest controller to the ANS
    The hypothalmus and the Brain stem
  33. Where is the ganglian Impar, and what is it
    It is located at the midline of the coccyx, and is the the fusion of the paravetebral nerves
  34. Every spinal nerve has ----------- but never----------- fibers
    sympathetic, parasympathetic
  35. Are the pre-ganglionic sympathetic nerves short or long
    They can be either mostly short
  36. Where are the short pre gang. sympathetic fibers found
    From the CNS to the Paravertebral ganglia
  37. Where are the long pre gang. symp. fibers found
  38. When are the PS fibers long
    Always!! Because they want to be closer to the organ being innervated
  39. How are the Vegus nerve (C10) fibers nerve different
    The extend to the organ to be innervated instead of just prior to. The only PS nerve to do that
  40. What are the symptoms of Horners syndrome (whiplash to cervical sympathetic chain)
    • Drooping of eyelid (Ptosis)
    • Flushed face
    • Lack of sweat (Anhidrosis)
    • Constricted pupil (PS-SP)
  41. Any fiber that exits medially from the sympathetic chain is a
    Splanchnic (visceral), and feeds the visceral organs
  42. What are the three major functions of the ANS
    • Vasomotor- Vasculature
    • Sudomotor- Sweat Glands
    • Pilomotor- Hair follicle
  43. Does the sympathetic constrict or dilate blood vessels
  44. What is the primary function of the ANS
    To maintain homeostasis
  45. ANS is a branch of what nervous system
  46. Pre ganglionic SNS release
  47. Post ganglionic nerves of the SNS release what to the target organs
    Epi, Norepi, and ACh (Only in the sweat glands)
  48. What is the exception of the Post ganglionic sympathetic nerves releasing ACh instead of Norepi, or Epi
    The sweat glands get ACh
  49. Sympathetic includes what spinal nerves
    T1-L2 (Thoraco-lumbar)
  50. PNS includes what nerves
    C3, C7, C9, C10 (vegus), S2-S4, (Cranio-Sacral)
  51. PNS only release what neuro transmitter
  52. How is the Adrenal Medulla a modified ganglia
    SNS nerves provide input to specialized cells (Chromaffin cells) that release Norepi and epi directly into the blood stream
  53. What are the chromaffin cells resposible for
    Synthesis of Norepi and Epi, when stimulated release them directly to the blood stream (80% Epi, 20% Norepi)
  54. Cholinergic is a term denoting
    Ach transmitter and receptor team in the ANS
  55. Cholinergic receptors are
    • Nicotinic (pre-gang SNS and PNS)
    • Muscaranic (Tissue of PNS and sweat glands of SNS)
  56. The SNS and PNS neurons are myelinated where
    Pre gang
  57. Adrenergic receptors work with what neurotransmitters
    NE and Epi (Alpha and Beta)
  58. Chronotrophy
    heart rate
  59. Dromotrophy
    Conduction velocity
  60. Inotrophy
  61. Lusitrophy
    Relaxation rate of myocytes
  62. Pheochromocytoma is
    Tumor of the adrenal medulla, causes exaggerated palpitations, tachycardia, pallor, headaches vomiting, sweating, anxiety, nervousness, weightloss, heat tolerance, and excessive blood pressure
  63. Raynaud syndrome
    Constriction of the vessels in the fingers or toes, causing pain and can lead to tissue necrosis. Made worse by stress and cold
  64. The visceral nerves belong to what division of the ANS
  65. There are no PNS fibers in what
    The spinal nerves, they may arise from, but they are not in them