DMU chap 53 + 54

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DMU chap 53 + 54
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2011-01-13 00:46:38
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DMU chapters 53 + 54
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  1. amnion bands
    fibrous mesodermic bands which emenate from the chorionic side of the amnion, they entrap fetal parts and can cause lymphodema, amputationh, or slash defects
  2. amniotic sheets
    are believed to be caused by uterine scars, or synechiae, from previous instrumentation used in the uterus. the expanding membranes encounter the scar and wrap arount it. do not place the fetus at a risk
  3. where is the amniotic fluid produced from
    by the umbilical cord, the membranes, lungs, skin, and kidneys
  4. when does production of urine and fetal swallowing begin
    8 - 11 weeks of gestation
  5. the amniotic fluid is regulated by
    directly related to kidney function. regulated by swallowing and urine production
  6. amniotic fluid volume
    increases 25ml from 11th to 15th week

    increases by 50ms from 15th to 28th wk

    doesn't change significantly in last trimester
  7. sonographic signs of polyhydramnios
    obvious discrepency between size of fetus, size of uterus, amount of fluid

    appearance of freely floating fetus

    accentuated fetal anatomy due to increased fluid

    AFI equal to or greater than 20cm
  8. maternal conditions associated with polyhydramnios
    pregnancy induced hypertension

    preterm labor

    postpartum hemorrhage

    diabetes

    fetal macrosomia

    Rh isoimmunization
  9. what is associated with oligohydramnios
    congenital anomalies

    IUGR

    post term pregnancy

    ruptured membranes

    iatrogenesis
  10. amniotic sheets are believed to be caused by
    uterine scars

    synechiae

    cesarean section

    episodes of endometritis
  11. syndactylism
    most likely a result of amniotic band

    two or more digits fused together
  12. amniotic fluid index (AFI)
    used most frequently for evaluating fluid volume at different intervals of pregnancy
  13. subjective assessment
    visual (eye-ball) assessment of the fluid, the lie of the fetus, and position of the placenta
  14. single pocket assessment
    maximum vertical pocket, depth of the pocket is measured at right angles to uterine contour
  15. main source of amniotic production in early gestation
    amniotic membrane
  16. twin pregnancies and AFI
    have slightly lower AFI value

    2 demensional pocket measurement appears to be better
  17. functions of amniotic fluid
    cushion to protect the fetus

    allows embryonic and fetal movement

    prevents adherence of the amnion to the embryo

    allows symetric growth

    maintains constant temperature

    acts as a resevoir to fetal metabolites before excretion
  18. gold standard for determination of AF volume
    dye-dilution technique
  19. what technique is both valid and reproducablein the assessment of amniotic fluid
    AFI
  20. congenital anomalies associated with polyhydrmnios
    central nervous disorders

    gastrointestinal

    fetal hydrops

    skeletal anomalies

    some renal disorders

    congenetal anomalies
  21. scars within the uterus
    synechiae
  22. particles floating in the amniotic fluid
    amniotic sheets
  23. using max vertical depth assessment, what is considered normal
    2 - 8 cm
  24. polyhydramnios is defined by
    greater than 2000 ml
  25. gestational age of post term pregnancy
    42 weeks or more
  26. anomalies and conditions causing oligohydramnios
    • IUGR
    • premature rupture of membrane
    • post date pregnancy
    • chorionic villa sampling
    • infantile polycystic kidney
    • renal agenesis
    • posterior urethral valve syndrome
    • displastic kidney
    • chromosomal abnormalities
  27. fetal face - sonographic views and what you see different planes
    true coronal - maxilla and orbits

    longitudinal - nasal bones, soft tissue, mandible

    transverse - orbital abnormalities and intraorbital distrance
  28. pretrusion of the brain from the cranial cavity
    cephalocele
  29. what hinders extensive facial screenings
    bone shadowing

    poor fetal position

    oligohydramnios

    maternal obesity
  30. craniosynostoses
    premature closure of the cranial sutures
  31. abnormal protrusion of the eyeball
    exophthalmia
  32. evaluation of the nasal triad includes
    ?
  33. cleft lip and cleft palate - what didn't fuse
    incomplete fusion of the maxilary prominence to the medial prominence on one side
  34. epignathus
    teratoma located in the oropharnyx
  35. most common neck mass
    cystic hygroma
  36. disorder that enfalacele, macroglosia, and viseromegally have in common
    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome
  37. bridge of nose originates from
    frontal nasal prominence
  38. probascus suggests
    the nose
  39. optimal age for measuring nucal lucency
    11-13 weeks
  40. most common congenital anomolie of the face
    cleft lip (with or without cleft palate)
  41. which syndrome is underdevelopment of the jaw and cheekbone associated with
    treacher collins syndrome
  42. small chin
    micrognathia
  43. elongated forehead in sag and triangular in axial plane suggests
    trigonocephaly
  44. what syndrome are ear malformations seen in
    goldenhar's syndrome
  45. fetal goiters
    thyromegaly - enlargement of the thyroid gland
  46. neck teratomas
    usually unilateral and usually located anteriorly

    complex sonographic patterns
  47. ratio of congenital anomalies
    1 in 600 births

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