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5 sonorants + pronunciation rule
л, м, н, р, й
- Consonants immediately before sonorants are
- pronounced as they are written
5 pairs of paired consonants
б-п, д-т, ж-ш, з-с, к-г
5 silent ones
ф, х, ц, ч, щ
weird sisters + rule
в is influenced by consonants that come after it (voiced vs. unvoiced) but it does not influence consonants that come before it
5 low and high guy vowel pairs
а-я, э-е, ы-и, о-ё, у-ю
Rule of 7 spelling rule
After ш, ж, щ, ч г, к, х write и not ы
Rule of 5 spelling rule
After ш, ж, щ, ч, ц, write o if the ending is stressed and e if the stem is stressed
ex. хорош-ее but больш-ое
Rule of 4 spelling rule
After the hushers write а not я and у not ю
водка effect pronunciation rule
When the last consonant in a consonant cluster is unvoiced, all the preceding ones are also pronounced unvoiced.
ex. Водка is pronounced [вотка]
футбол effect pronunciation rule
When the last consonant in a consonant cluster is voiced, all the preceding ones are also pronounced voiced.
ex. футбол is pronounced [фудбол]
Строганов pronunciation rule
A paired consonant at the end of a word, which does not form a cluster with a paired consonant of an immediately following word, must be pronounced voiceless.
ex. Я рад is pronounced [Я рат]
Otherwise, the consonant is pronounced voiced.
ex. наш брат is pronounced [нажбрат]
Note: в is not one of the paired consonants