Toxicology Exam 1

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Author:
Rx2013
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59583
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Toxicology Exam 1
Updated:
2011-01-13 11:29:41
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General principles Toxicology
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General principles of toxicology
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  1. Toxicology
    • basic science of poisons
    • adverse effects of chemicals on biologic systems
  2. Poison
    any agent capable of producing injury or death when ingested or absorbed
  3. Toxicologist
    public health relevance of chemicals and chemical exposure
  4. Types of Toxicology
    • mechanistic toxicology
    • regulatory toxicology
    • descriptive toxicology
    • specialized toxicology
  5. Descriptive toxicoloty
    • tells what damage a drug can produce
    • ex. liver damage
  6. Specialized toxicology is comprised of
    • clinical toxicology
    • forensic toxicology
  7. Clinical toxicology
    • drug interactions
    • drug chemical interactions
  8. Forensic toxicology
    • over and under dosage
    • poisoning
  9. Origins of toxicology
    • physics
    • biochem
    • physiology
    • pharmacology
    • biology
    • medicine
  10. Are all substances poisons?
    yes
  11. Largest organ of toxicology
    • liver
    • enlarged due to evolution
  12. Delaney Clause
    • make sure that drugs on the market are safe and efficatious
    • thalidomide incident
  13. Photomelia
    complete absence of limbs
  14. allergic reactions
    • elicit immune response
    • systemic
  15. idiosyncratic reactions
    • reactions to chemicals that the general population does not react to
    • 5% or less of the population will react
  16. Additive interaction of chemicals
    3 + 2 = 5
  17. Synergistic interaction of chemicals
    3 + 2 = 20
  18. Potentiation interaction of chemicals
    non-toxic substance but when added with a toxic substance it becomes toxic
  19. four levels of antagonism
    • functional
    • chemical
    • dispositional
    • receptor
  20. Functional antagonism
    change the physiology to counteract effects
  21. Chemical antagonism/inactivation
    • binding of substrate to the poison to render the toxic agent inactive
    • chelating agents and metals
  22. DIspositional antagonism
    • ETOH, Methanol and Et. Glycol
    • block Alcohol dehydrogenase to block metabolism of toxic agents
  23. Receptor antagonism
    • naloxone
    • competitive antagonist competes for receptor binding
  24. Routes and sites of exposure (4)
    • GI
    • lungs
    • skin
    • parenteral
  25. vein that carries substance to the liver for 1st pass effect
    portal vein
  26. Splenic vein
    carries blood to the kidney
  27. Zero order kinetics
    • rate remains constant and is independant of concentration
    • biological systme is rate limiting
    • t1/2 increases with dose (false half life)
    • alcohol
  28. First order kinetics
    • rate is directly proportional to the concentration
    • chemical is rate limiting
    • true t1/2
    • most chemicals handled like this
    • upon saturation, may change to zero order

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