CP Chapters 1 - 2.txt

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aylakat
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59586
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CP Chapters 1 - 2.txt
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2011-01-13 11:42:09
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child psychology
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child psychology Chapters 1-2
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  1. Psychology
    Scientific study of [gene-brain-] behavior-environment interactions
  2. Development
    The progressive physical and psychological changes an organism undergoes from conception until death (growth, differentiation, complexity)
  3. Child/Developmental Psychology
    The branch of psychology devoted to the scientific study of the [gene-brain-] behavior-environment interactions producing the progressive changes that occur from conception until late adolescence.
  4. Scientific method
    Strategy for understanding natural world that involves acquiring information by making

    • • direct systematic observations (collecting data) that are objective and quantifiable,
    • • and occur under well-specified conditions that are replicable.
  5. Why use scientific method ?
    • • Beliefs are not facts and can be based on personal biases, faulty information, subjective observations and experiences, and/or expectancies.
    • • Goal is to accurately/objectively describe and explain the progressive physical and psychological changes of childhood.
  6. Child/Developmental Psychology
    • (a) The branch of psychology devoted to the scientific study
    • (b) of the [gene-brain-] behavior-environment interactions
  7. Gene
    (unit of inheritance): composed of a sequence of chemical compounds (nucleotides) that specify the structure and production of protein.
  8. Brain
    (organ of thought) : composed of neurons, specialized cells that transmit and receive impulses.
  9. Neural plasticity
    the brain is a work in progress, lots of neurons, but limited neural connections.
  10. Behavior
    everything organism’s do; anything a dead person can’t do (thinking, feeling, acting).

    • • Behavior repertoire relatively limited at birth, very little behavior is fixed.
    • • Behavioral repertoire increases over time becoming more differentiated and complex.
  11. Environment
    everything that has an effect on an organism (antecedents & consequences, proximal & d
  12. Reductionism
    Analyzing on a smaller scale
  13. Antireductionism
    Analyzing at the scale that is most applicable for the area of study
  14. Developmental Phylogenesis
    Changes in species behavior over the course of evolution
  15. Mechanism of Developmental phylogenesis:
    Natural selection

    • o Variation, selection, genetic transmission
    • o Changes appear in species due to selection by environmental consequences
    • • Newborn reflexes (palmer grasp, stepping reflex), crying, cooing
    • • Long childhood
    • • Brain that is altered by experience
  16. Developmental Ontogenesis
    Change in individuals behavior over course of their lifetimes
  17. Mechanism of developmental ontogenesis
    Learning

    • • A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience.
    • • Changes due to selection by environmental consequences during the individual’s lifetime.

    • - loss of reflexes, increased intentionality – grasping wanted object, walking to go somewhere, speak or cry to get something
    • - synaptic connections in brain refined by experience
  18. Child/Developmental Psychology
    • (a) The branch of psychology devoted to the scientific study
    • (b) of the [gene-brain-] behavior-environment interactions
    • (c) producing the progressive changes that occur from conception until late adolescence.
  19. Reciprocal interactions
    • • The child provides the structures of development (brain, body) the environment provides the functions (stimulation, consequences).
    • • The child is changed by the environment and the child changes the environment.
  20. Reciprocal interactions involve
    Child characteristicso

    • 1. Genetic or Constitutional (organic) make-up
    • 2. What child has learned via past experiences (learning history)
    • 3. Current Physiological/Motivative Conditions•

    Environmental characteristics

    4. Current Environmental Conditions
  21. Multiply determined
    many factors combine to influence development (as opposed to genetic or environmental determinism)
  22. Continua
    • • 1. Unimpaired—impaired physically (CNS)
    • • 2. Sensitivity—insensitivity or response-able—non-response-able to environmental events (based on learning history)
    • • 3. High—low motivative conditions
    • • 4. Facilitative—non-facilitative environment

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