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property derived solely from the number of particles present, not the nature of those particles
name 4 colligative property
freezing point depression, boiling point elevation, osmotic pressure, vapor pressure lowering
formula for freezing point depression? for boiling point elevation?
- freezing point- delta Tf=Kfm
- boiling point - delta Tb=Kbm
K= molality of solution
formula for osmotic pressure
- M- molarity
- R-gas constant
measure of the amount of substance that can be dissolved in a particular solvent at a particular temp
solute whose solution is conductive
formula for percent composition by mass
mass of solute/mass of solution x 100%
definition of normality
The normality of a solution is the number of gram equivalent weight of a solute per liter of its solution
gram equivalent weight
equivalent weight of a compound can be calculated by dividing the molecular weight by the number of positive or negative electrical charges that result from the dissolution of the compound.
Fe(OH)3 <---->Fe3+ (aq) +3 OH- (aq)
1.what's ion product (IP)
2.whats solubility product constant (Ksp)
3.difference btwn IP and Ksp?
- 3.IP is with respect to initial concentrations. Kspis with respect to concentration of a saturated solution at equilibrium
common ion effect?
slightly soluble salt is added to a solution which already contains one of its components, the added salt is less soluble than if it were added to a pure solvent.
difference btwn Brownsted Lowry and Lewis definition of acids
Brownsted Lowry acid- proton donar
Lewis acid- electron acceptors
water dissociation constant (Kw) at 25oC
- Kw=[H+][OH-]=1 x10-14
- Kw=Ka x Kb
would pH of 1.4x10-4M HCl solution be greater or less than 4
HCO3-(aq) <----> H+(aq)+CO3-2
what is Ka for HCO3?
what is Kb for CO3
(t/f) an acid equivalent is equal to one mole of H+
(t/f) a buffer solution consists of a mixture of strong acid and its salt
false, it consists of mixture of weak acid and weak base with their salts
a reducing agent
a specie that loses electrons that causes another specie to be reduced (gain the electrons)
whats oxidation number of a group VIIA elements in a compound?
- except if it is combined with an element of higher electronegativity, then its +1 or higher
half reaction for
SnCl2 + PbCl4 <---->SnCl4 +PbCl2
Pb4+ +2e- ---->Pb2+
2 types of electrochemical cells?
galvanic (voltaic) and electrolytic
does oxidation occur at anode or cathode? reduction at?
an Ox / red Cat = Anode oxidation, reduction at Cathode
function of a salt bridge?
permits the balancing of charge btwn cells
what kind of battery cell has its anode positive
(t/f) electrons always flow from anode to cathode
reduction potential is defined as the tendency of a species to acquire electron
Ag+ +e- ----> Ag (s) Eo=+0.80V
Tl+ +e- ----->Tl (s) Eo=-0.34V
which one oxides more easily? reduced more easily
what is the EMF for a Tl and Ag galvanic cell
Tl+ oxides easier, Ag+ reduces easier
EMF= Eored +Eoox=.80+.34=1.14V
formula for standard free energy of electrochemical cell
- delta G= -(number of moles)(Farady's constant)(EMF)
whats a faraday (F)?
amount of charge contained in on mole of electrons =96,487 C.