Language Science Ch 1

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smallville12
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Language Science Ch 1
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2011-01-14 11:21:19
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Ch 1
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  1. Acoustics
    the study of sound
  2. Aquired Brain Injuries
    Damage to the brain occuring in utero (before birth) and perinattaly (durring the birth process) as well as after birth
  3. Acquisition Rate
    how fast a language is learned
  4. Agrammaticism
    Ommision of grammatical markers. (in speech, agrammataicism is characterized by a "telegraphic qualitly). can occur with damage to certian areas of the left frontal lobe of the brain
  5. Allophones
    The subtle variations of phonemes that occur as a result of contextual influence on how phonemes are produced in different words.

    Example: the 2 phonemes /p/ in pop are pronounced differently and are thus phonemes
  6. Articulation
    Munipulation of a breath of air by the oral articulators-including tongue, teeth and jaw- so that it comes out as a series of speech sounds that are combined into words, phrases, and sentences. One of the four systems involved in Speech
  7. Audition
    The perception of sound, including general auditory perception and speech perception
  8. auditory perception
    How the Brain processes any type of auditory informationo (ex: clap of the hands), no just speech
  9. bilingualism
    a process by which people aquire 2 first languages. (2 or more for this book) the 2 languages can be learned simultaneously or sequentially. A type of language difference
  10. coarticulation
    The overlapping of phonemes during human speech
  11. Code Switching
    When speakers who have more than one language in common alternate between the languages. Bilingual children may code switch to fill in lexical or grammatical gaps, for pragmatic effect, or to follow the social norms of their community

    ex: english sentence with spanish syntax
  12. Communication
    The Process of Sharing information amoung individuals. Communicaitonn can involve only language (internet chat) or language, hearing and speech (ex: conversation)
  13. Communication Breakdowns
    Communication problems that occur when recievers do not provide appropriate types or amounts of feedback or when seners do not attend the feedback
  14. Content
    Synonymous with semantics. The meaning of language. The words used and the meaning behind them. One of the 3 domains of Language
  15. Contexualized
    Relying on the immediate context or setting, here and now
  16. Conversational Repair
    When a communication breakdown occurs and the sender or reciever adjusts the exchange to mend the breakdown. It requires the reciever to provide ongoing feedback and the sender to monitor the reciever's feedback closely
  17. Critical Period
    Also called sensetive period. The window of opportunity during which children develop language most rapidly and with the most ease
  18. Decontexualized
    Not rellying on the immediate context, or setting, to convey content
  19. Dialects
    Regional or social veriations of a language that differ from one another in terms of their pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar. Dialects can evolve within specific geographic regions or sociocultural ccommunities. A type of language difference
  20. Domain Specific
    Dedicated solely to a certain task. In the context of language development, domain-specific language processes are dedicated soley to the tasks of comprehending and producing language.
  21. Extralinguistic Feedback
    nonlinguistic feedback
  22. Feedback
    a.) in models of speech production, information about the timing, delivery, and precision of speech output that is relayed back to the origination of the perceptional target and motor schema. It provides information about what is to come next at the perceptual and motor levels. Speakers are seldom aware of feed back on a conscious level.

    b.) in models of communication, information provided by the reciever to the sender. The sender responders to this feedback to modulate the flow of communication
  23. Form
    How words, sentances, and sounds are arranged and orgranized to convey content. One of the three language domains.
  24. Frequency
    How fast air paritcles move back and forth during the creation of sounds. Pitch. One of the three prosodic characteristics of speech
  25. Gender Differences
    Language differences relating to gender.

    ex.) girls usually begin talking efore boys do. Usualy minor particularly as children move into the preschoool years
  26. General American English (GAE)
    Also called Standard American English. Diaect used most commonly in the United states. (i.e., assigned to the highest social status.) includes 39 phenomes
  27. Hearing
    the sensory system that allows speech to enter into and be proccessed by the human brain
  28. Heritable Language Impairment
    also known as Primary Language Impairment or Specific Language Impairment. A significant language impirment in the absense of any other developmental difficulty (brain injury, retardation, etc). Affects approximently 7-10% of the children older than age 5. the most common reason for administering early intervention and special education services to toddlers through fourth graders
  29. Iconic Communication
    • also called intentional communication. Communication that is relatively more perciese in inten than symbolic communication, but unlike symbolic communication, the realtionship between the communicative behavior and its referent is not arbitrary. Rather, it relies on the shared spatial position amont the sender, the recipient, and the referent. The relationship between the message and its referent is transparent.
    • Example: when a chimpanzee points to a banana
  30. Inner Language
    thoughts or ideas that an individual keeps to himself or herself after they are formulated
  31. Intensity
    How fare apart air particles move when they are going back and forth during the creation of sound. Loudness. One of the three prosodic characters of speech
  32. Intentional Communication
    Also called Iconic communication. Communication that is relatively more perciese in inten than symbolic communication, but unlike symbolic communication, the realtionship between the communicative behavior and its referent is not arbitrary. Rather, it relies on the shared spatial position amont the sender, the recipient, and the referent. The relationship between the message and its referent is transparent. Example: when a chimpanzee points to a banana
  33. Language
    a rule governed, code-based tool shared by the members of a community. Used to represent thoughts and ideas to other people who know the code
  34. Language Difference
    the variability among language users.

    Example: girls speak earlier than boys do.
  35. Language impairment
    significant language development difficulties relative to those experienced by children developing normally
  36. Lexicon
    a vocabulary system or "mental dictionary" used to convey content. for each word a child learns, he or she creates an entry in the lexicon. The entry contains a series of symbols the compose the word, the sound of the word, the meaning of the word and its part of speech
  37. Linguistic Feedback
    the use of speech of vocalizations (ex: mm-hmm) to relay information to the sender about his or her message
  38. Model
    a repersentation of an unknown event of the basis of the best evidence governing the event
  39. Modularity
    a cognitive science theory about how the human mind is organized within the brain sturctures. It contends that the human brain contains a set of highly specific modules--or regions developed to process specific types of information
  40. Monolingualism
    aquisition of only one language
  41. Morphemes
    the smallest units of language that carry meaning. they are combined to create words.

    Ex.) pre+school+s=preschools
  42. Morphology
    the rules of language governing the internal organization of words. One of the components of the langaugae domain of form.
  43. Nonlinguistic Feedback
    the use of eye contact, facial expression, posture, and proximity to relay information to the sender about his or her message. It may supplement linguisitic feedback or stand alone
  44. Oral Communication
    Language that is spoken. Comprises three domains: content, form, use
  45. Paralinguistic Feedback
    the use of pitch, loudness, and pauses, all of which are superimposed over linguistic feedback, to relay information to a sender about his or her message
  46. Phonation
    when a breath of air that has been respirated travels over the vocal cords. One of the four systems involved in speech
  47. Phoneme
    • the smalles unit of sound that can signal a difference in meaning. in the production of syllables and wordes, a series of phonemes are strung together.
    • Examples /m/+/a/="ma"
  48. Phonology
    the rules of language governing the sounds used to make syllablews and words. One of the components of the language domain in form
  49. Phonotactics
    How sounds are organized in words
  50. Preintentional Communication
    Communication in which other people assume the relationship wetween a communicaticve behavior and its referent.

    Example: when an infant cries, the communicative partner must infer the referent or goal of the communication
  51. Productivity
    the priniciple of combination whereby small number s of discrete units are combined into seemingly infinate novel creations. This prinicple also applies to human activities orther than lanugage-such as mathematics and music
  52. Reciever
    the listener during communication. The person who takes in and then comprehends the information
  53. Referent
    the aspect of the world to which a word refers.

    Example: in english the specific feeling to which the word happy refers
  54. Referential Communication
    also called dreferential communication. when an individual communicates about a specific entity (an object or event), and the relationship between the entity and its referent (ex. word) is arbitrary. This type of communication is not limited by space or time.

    Example: when an infant says "bottle" to request something to dring, the relationship gbetween the word bottle and is referent is arbitrary
  55. Resonation
    the phase of speech that occurs after a breath of air has been respirated and phonated, when the air travels into and vibrates withing the oral and nasal cavitites. One of tfour systems involved in speech
  56. Respiration
    the act of inspiring a breath of air into the lungs, expiring it from the lungs, and allowing it to travel up through the trachea, or windpipe, before it is phonated. One of the four systems involved ins speech
  57. Responsiveness
    how propt and appropriate a response is. With regard to language development, the promptness, contingency, and appropriateness of caregiver responses to children's bids for communication through words or other means
  58. Semanticity
    the species-specific aspect of language that allows people to represent the world. in particular, it allows be to represent decontextualized events
  59. Semantics
    synonymous with content. the rules of language governing the meaning of individual words and word combinations
  60. Sender
    the speaker during communication. The person who formulates and then transmits the information he or she wants to convey
  61. Species Specificity
    when something pertians to only one species. Language is strictly a humman capacity and thus species specific
  62. Specific Language Impairment
    (SLI) also known as Primary Language Impairment or Heritable Language impairment. A significant language impirment in the absense of any other developmental difficulty (brain injury, retardation, etc). Affects approximently 7-10% of the children older than age 5. the most common reason for administering early intervention and special education services to toddlers through fourth graders
  63. Speech
    the nuromuscular process by which humans turn language into a sound signal that is transmitted though the air (or another mediam such as a telephone line) to a reciever.
  64. Speech Perception
    how the brain process speech and language. the ability to understand the sounds and words of a anative language. Studies of speech perception help researchers lean about the kinds of language abilities infants have when they are born and how children use their speech perceoption to learn language
  65. Symbolic Communication
    also called dreferential communication. when an individual communicates about a specific entity (an object or event), and the relationship between the entity and its referent (ex. word) is arbitrary. This type of communication is not limited by space or time.Example: when an infant says "bottle" to request something to dring, the relationship gbetween the word bottle and is referent is arbitrary
  66. Syntax
    the rules of language governing the internal orgainization of sentences One component of the laguage domain of form
  67. Traumatic Brain Injury
    TBI Damage or insult ot an individual's brain tissue sometime after birth. Ranges from mild (concussion with loss of consciousness for 30 min or less) to severe (accompanied by a coma of 6 hr or more.) cause include infection, disease and physical trauma
  68. Twin Studies
    research on identical and monozygotic twins used to estimate the contribution of genetics to language development, as well as the heritability of language disorders
  69. Universality
    the idea that all persons around the world have a cognitive infastructure that they apply to the task of learning language
  70. Use
    synonymous with pragmatics. How language is used in interactions with other people to express personal and social needs. One of the three domains of language
  71. Written Language
    thoughts and ideas that an individual writes down after they are formulated

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