The view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most researchers agree with the first statement but not the second.
Historically significant perspective that emphasizes the growth potential of healthy people and the individuals potential for personal growth.
The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition
The science of behavior and mental processes
The long standing controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture
Levels of Analysis
The differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon.
An integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis.
Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.
Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
A branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
A branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.
A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example: a drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen it. Also known as the I Knew it all along phenomenon.
The idea that humans, no matter how sure of what they plan to do, will normally be inaccurate.
Make a Hypothesis, and test it. You need Curious Skepticism.
Established the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany
Personality Theorist and Therapist. Very controversial ideas. Started by talking to women.
Mary Whiton Calkins
Pioneered memory research. First woman president of the American Psychological Association. Earned her degree at Harvard and they refused to give it to her.
A statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operational defined as "what an intelligence test measures."
Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
A technique for ascertaining the self reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
All the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn
A sample that fairly represents a population because each person has an equal chance of inclusion
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
The extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. The correlation coefficient is the mathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from +1 to -1
The perception of a relationship where none exists
Not proved by Correlation. The idea that one factor directly influences another
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (dependent variable).
In an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
The group that is not exposed to the treatment. Used to discover what the experimental group actually experiences.
An experimental procedure in which both the participants and the research staff are absolutely unaware about whether the participants received the treatment or a placebo drug.
Latin for "I shall Please." Experimental results caused by expectations alone. Any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.
The variable whose effect is being studied, a drug.
The Outcome factor, which will have changed in response to the independent variable.
Mean, Mode, Median
Average, most occurring Number, number in the middle
Range and Standard Deviation
The differences between all the data presented
A curve in which the mean mode and median are the same number