Inflammations

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Author:
hgienau
ID:
59729
Filename:
Inflammations
Updated:
2011-01-19 17:51:17
Tags:
Patho Test One
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Description:
Exam 1
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  1. What is inflammation?
    • boides repsonse to injury at the cellular level
    • followed by -itis
  2. Physiology of Acute Inflammation
    • Altered hemodynamics (blood flow)
    • Fluid balance is altered
    • Compare normal capillar exchange and inflammation
    • 1st vascular responce
    • 2nd cellular response
  3. Vascular Response of Inflammation
    • chemical mediators are released (histamine, prostaglandin, bradykinin)
    • Vasodilation
    • Increased capillary permeability, proteins & fluids leak out in the interstitial space
  4. Cellular Response of Inflammation
    • Leukocytes are attracted to the area
    • Functions vary pers cell type
    • Cells work together to destroy & remove foreign material
  5. Leukocytes and thier function
    • Neutrophils - phagocytosis of microorganisms
    • Basophils - Release of histamine leading to inflammation
    • Eosinophil - Numbers are increased in allergic responses
  6. Lymphocytes and their function
    • Y Lymphocytes - active in cell-mediated immune response
    • B Lymphocytes - porduce anitbodies
    • Monocytes - Phagocytosis
    • Macrophages - Active in phagocytosis (mature monocytes)
  7. Signs of Inflammation
    • Redness & Warmth
    • Swelling & decreased movement
    • Pain
    • Inflammatory exudate
    • Possible loss of function
  8. Causes of Redness & warmth
    Vasodilation and increaced blood flow
  9. Causes of Swelling and Decreased Movement
    Increased Capillary permeability and shift of protein / fluid into the area
  10. Causes of Pain
    pressure on nerve ending (due to fluid in area chemical mediators)
  11. Causes of Inflammatory exudate
    Interstitail fluid builds up
  12. Causes Possible loss of Function
    Can affedt function of specific tissue affected (lung, muscle)
  13. Serous Inflammatory Exudate
    • watery, small amount of protein, & WBC's
    • Allergic Reaction burns
  14. Fibrinous Inflammatory Exudate
    • Thick, sticky, with high cell and fibrin content
    • Trauma with increased risk of scar
  15. Purulent Inflammatory Exudate
    • Thick, yellow green, containes leukocyes, cell debris, microbes
    • Indicates infection
    • Localized pocket - abscess
    • Bug and Bacteria
  16. Hemorrhagic Inflammatory Exudate
    • Blood in fluid
    • Damagede blood vessels
  17. Systems Effects of Inflammation
    • Malaise - discomfort, uneasiness, indisposition
    • Fatigue Headache
    • Anorexia
    • Mild Fever - Pyrogen
  18. Define Pyrogen
    • Fever producing substance.
    • Can occur if inflammation is severe or porlonged
    • More common with infection
  19. `Potential Complication of Inflammtion
    • Infections
    • Ulcers
    • Skeletal Muscle Spasm
    • Local Effects Decreased lung expantion, decreased joint ROM
  20. Chronic Inflammation
    • RA, Crohns's Disease
    • Pathophysiology:
    • Less Swelling. more lymphocyes & fibroblasts
    • More Tiddue Destruction
    • More scar Formation
  21. Aspirin
    • decreases prostaglandin synthesis
    • decreases inflammation
    • decreases clotting time
    • hard on stomach
  22. Acetaminophen
    • Tylenol
    • Decreases fever and pain
    • Does NOT decrease inflammation
  23. NSAID's
    • Motrin, Advil Ibuprofen
    • Decreases prostaglandin synthesis
    • Decreases inflammation fever and pain
    • good for musculoskeletal pain
  24. Glucocorticoids
    • Steroids - prednisone dezamethasone
    • Effects vs side effects
    • decreases capillary permeability : stabilizes vascular system
    • decreases number of leukocytes and chemical mediators
    • Blocks immune response
  25. None medication treatment options
    • RICE
    • Cold
    • Heat
    • Exercise to prevent long term complications and effects of immobility
  26. Resolution
    • minimum tissue damage
    • can have scar formations
    • mild sunburn
  27. Regeneration
    • More significant damage
    • cell must be capable of mitosis
    • cells are replaced by smae type of cell
    • often have scar formation
  28. Replacement by Connective Tissue
    • Extensive tissue damage
    • cells are incapable of mitosis (brain, myocardium)
  29. The order of cells arriving the injury site
    • Injury and inflammation- scab, Neutrophils blood clot, and inflammation
    • Granulation tissue and epithelial growth- epithelial regeneration, inflammation, macrophages, fibroblast, new capillaries
  30. Factors that Promote Healing
    • Youth
    • Good nutrition: protein vitamins A & C
    • Adequate Hemoglobin
    • Effective Circulation
    • Clean, Undisturbed wound
    • No complications
  31. Factors that delay healing
    • Advanced age, reduced mitosis
    • Poor Nutrition dehydration
    • Anemia (low hemoglobin)
    • Decreased circulation
    • Irritation, bleeding, or excessive mobility
    • Infection, foreign material, exposure to radiation (slows mitosis) insulin deficit
    • Presense of other disorders: DM cancer
    • Chemotherapy or porlonged use of steroids
  32. Complication of Healing By Scar Formation
    • Loss of function
    • Contractures, obstructions
    • Adhesions
    • Hypertrophic Scar Tissue
    • Ulceration

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