Psych chp 2

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Psych chp 2
2011-01-14 00:57:35

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  1. Biological psychology
    the scientific study of the links between biological(genetic, neural, hormonal) and psychological processes.
  2. bio psychologists are called
    behavioral neuroscientists, neruropsychologists, behavior geneticists etc..
  3. Neuron
    a nervecell: the basic building block of the nervous system
  4. dendrite
    the neuron's bushy, branchy extentions that recieve messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
  5. axon
    the neuron's extension that passes messages through its branching terminal fibers that form junctions with other neurosn, muscles, or glands. can be longer than dendrites are covered with (myelin sheath).
  6. action potential
    a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travesl down an axon.
  7. threshold
    the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
  8. synapse
    the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the recieving neuron. the tiny gap at this junction is called syaptic gap or cleft
  9. neurotransmitters
    chemical messangers that cross the synaptic gaps between nerurons. when release by the sending neuron, neurotransmittters travel across the syapse and bind to receptor sites on the recieveing neuron, thereby influencing whter that neuron will generate a nneural impulse
  10. reuptake
    the sending neuron normally reabsorbs excess neurotransmitter molecules
  11. Endorphins
    morphine within; natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure
  12. Acetylcholine
    enables muscle action, learning, and memory- these neuro transmitters deteriorate when Alzheimers
  13. Dopamine
    Influences movement, learning, atention, and emotion. excess = linked with schizophrenia & shortage = linked to tremors, decrease mobility and parkinson's disease
  14. Serotonin
    • Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
    • low supply = depression drugs taken to raise levels = prozac
  15. Norepinephrine
    helps controll alertness and arousal- low levels = depress mood
  16. Endorphins
    lessen pain and boost mood
  17. Agonists
    molecules that mimic opiate effects and give a temporary high
  18. Antagonists
    also bind to receptors but block the neurotransmitter functioning
  19. Neurons response to stimulation and its intesnity of the stimulus determines
    whether or not an impulse is generated
  20. Endorphins are release in the brain in response to?
    pain or vigorous exercise
  21. Nervous system
    the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous system
  22. Central Nervous system
    Brain and spinal chord
  23. peripheral nervous system
    sensorya dn motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
  24. nerves
    bundles axons that form neural "cables" connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs
  25. sensory neurons
    nerusons that carry incoming info from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
  26. motor neurons
    neurons that carry outgoing info fro the brain and spianl cord to the muscles and glands
  27. inernneurons
    neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internaly and intevene tetween the sensory inputs and motor outputs. we have billions of them more than sensory or motor neurons
  28. Somatic nervous system
    the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles. also called skelatal nervous system
  29. Autonomonic nervous system
    part of the peripheral nervous system that controlls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as teh heart). self regulating i.e. the heart pumping automatically sympathetic stimulation accelarates the heart and parasympathetic stimuli slows it
  30. sympathetic nervous system
    the division of the autonomic nvsystem that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
  31. parasympathetic nervous system
    division of the autonomic nvs that calms the body, conserving its energy
  32. the neurons of the spinal cord are part of the
    central nervous system
  33. Adrenal glands
    a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress- fight or flight response..
  34. pituitary glands
    the endocrine system's most influental gland. under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
  35. Lesion
    tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue
  36. brainstem
    the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning whre the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; teh brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions
  37. electroencephalogram
    an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. these waves are measured by electrododes placed on the scalp
  38. PET(positron emission tomography) scan
    a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radio active form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
  39. MRI(magnetic resonance imaging)
    uses magentic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. they show train anatonomy
  40. FMRI(functional MRI)
    a technique for revealing bloodflow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. also shows brain function
  41. Thalamus
    the brains sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory recieving areas in the cortex and transmits re;ies to the cerebellum and medulla
  42. reticular formation
    a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
  43. cerebellum
    the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include some nonverbal learning, processing sensory input, and coordinating movement output and balance
  44. limbic system
    neural system including the hippcampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with meotions and drives
  45. the part of the brain that controls heartbeat and breatheing is
    the medulla
  46. the part of the brain that coordinates voluntary movement is the
  47. amygdala
    influence agression influence aggression and fear -size two limabeans
  48. hypothalamus
    it directs several maintance activities; eating, drinking, body temperature, helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward
  49. 2 parts of the lymbic system are
    amygdala and hippocampus
  50. the initial reward center discoverd by olds an nilner was located in teh
  51. Cerebral cortex
    the intricate fabrick of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and info center
  52. frontal lobes
    • portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved
    • in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments. (p.
    • 50)
  53. parietal: [puh-RYE-uh-tuhl] lobes
    • portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward
    • the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position. (p. 50)
  54. occipital: [ahk-SIP-uh-tuhl] lobes
    • portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes
    • areas that receive information from the visual fields. (p. 50)
  55. temporal lobes:
    • portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly
    • above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information
    • primarily from the opposite ear. (p. 50)
  56. motor cortex:
    an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements. (p. 51
  57. area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations. (p. 52)
    sensory cortex
  58. association areas:
    • areas of the cerebral cortex that are not
    • involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are
    • involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering,
    • thinking, speaking, and integrating information. (p. 53)
  59. aphasia:
    • impairment of language, usually caused by
    • left-hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to
    • Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding). (p. 54)
  60. Broca’s area:
    • controls language expression; an area of the
    • frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle
    • movements involved in speech. (p. 54)
  61. Wernicke’s area:
    • controls language reception; a brain area,
    • usually in the left temporal lobe, that is involved in language
    • comprehension and expression. (p. 54)
  62. plasticity:
    the brain’s ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience. (p. 56)
  63. neurogenesis:
    the formation of new neurons. (p. 57)
  64. corpus callosum: [KOR-pus kah-LOW-sum]
    the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them. (p. 57)
  65. split brain
    • a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the
    • brain’s two hemispheres by cutting the fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) connecting them. (p. 58)