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What normal structures can be mistaken for lytic (dissolved) areas of the cortex?
What should be done if questions arise from a radiograph of a limb?
Shoot a comparison film(s) of the opposite limb
The different views _________ different sides of the bones.
Silhouette / highlight
What does the lateral view highlight?
Cranial and caudal or dorsal and palmar / plantar surfaces of bones
What are radiographic landmarks for the lateral side of the limb?
- spina of scapula
- greater tubercle (humerus)
- distal ulna
- accessory carpal bone
What are radiographic landmarks for the medial side of the thoracic limb?
- Radial carpal bone
- Dew claw
What are caudal / palmar landmarks of the forelimb?
- Head of humerous
- Accessory carpal
What does the craniocaudal or dorsopalmar view highlight?
medial and lateral structures of the limb
Name two normal structures that can be mistaken for fractures in the forearm.
Anconeal process of ulna, sesamoid bones of digits or lateral collateral ligament of elbow; accessory ossicle of caudal scapula.
On what side of the limb is the accessory carpal bone?
Lateral and palmar
What bone may be mistaken for a chip fracture of the carpus?
Sesamoid in tendon of oblique carpal extensor.
What makes the space betwen bones seen in a radiograph?
Joint space and articular cartliage
Is cartilage seen radiographically?
No, only inferred
Since cartilage can't be seen radiographically, how is it evaluated?
Check subchondral bone (under cartlage).
What is an pathological ossesus (bony) growth seen radiographically?
Osteophyte / enthesiophyte / bone spur.
What is an increase in the density of a bone?
What is destruction of a bone, seen as reduced density (blacker)?
What is a luxation or dislocation?
Complete loss of contact between articular surfaces of a joint
Define a subluxation
Partial loss of contact between articular surfaces of a joint
What is osteochondrosis (OC)?
Defect in endochondral ossification: deeper layers of articular cartilage die
Do you look for radiographic changes in the cartilage in OC?
No, can't see. Check subchondral bone.
List 2 of 4 common sites of OC.
- Medial humeral condyle
- Medial and lateral femoral condyle
- Proximal medial trochlea
What is the #1 site for osteochondrosis in the dog? Describe OCD appearance compared to normal.
- Caudal aspect of the head of the humerus.
- -Normal: smooth & round, with no flattening.
- -OCD: Flattening or cratering with subchondral bone sclerosis (thickening) +/- joing mouse.
What can the cat's clavicle be mistaken for in a lateral radiograph?
Bone in the esophagus
What can premature closure of either proximal or distal radial physis cause?
Subluxation of the humeral-radial joint
Where is osteochondrosis of the elbow located?
Medial condyle of the humerous
What is ununited anconeal process?
Failure of the anconeal process to unite with the ulna after 5 months of age
What is fragmented medial coronoid process?
Improper development and fragmentation of cartilaginous precursor.
How are the medial and lateral epicondyles of the humerus differentiated in a lateral radiograph?
Medial "squared" and extend further caudally than rounded lateral