Volume 4 Chapter 5

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amerelman
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59826
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Volume 4 Chapter 5
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2011-01-15 10:28:57
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Volume 4 Chapter 5
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  1. Integumentary System
    Skin, consisting of the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous layers
  2. Layers of the Skin
    • Epidermis
    • Dermis
    • Subcutaneous tissue
  3. Epidermis
    Outermost layer of the skin comprised of dead or dying cells
  4. Sebum
    Fatty secretion of the sebaceous gland that helps keep the skin pliable and waterproof
  5. Dermis
    True skin, also called the corium. Layer of tissue producing the epidermis and housing structures, blood vessels, and nerves associated with the skin.
  6. Sebaceous Glands
    Glands within the dermis secreting sebum
  7. Sudoriferous Glands
    Glands within the dermis that secrete sweat
  8. Macrophage
    Immune system cell that has the ability to recognize and ingest foreign pathogens. Some are housed in the dermis
  9. Lymphocytes
    White blood cell that specializes in humoral immunity and antibody formation. Some are housed in the dermis
  10. Subcutaneous Tissue
    Layer of fatty tissue beneath the dermis
  11. Lumen
    Opening or space within a needle, artery, vein or other hollow vessel
  12. Layers of Blood Vessels
    • Tunica Intima- smooth interior lining
    • Tunica Media- muscular component of vessel
    • Tinica Adventitia- connective tissue limiting the vessels dilation
  13. Muscle
    Contractile tissue organized in large bundles that provides locomotion and movement for the body
  14. Tendons
    Long, thin, very strong collagen tissues that connect muscle to bone
  15. Fasciae
    Fibrous sheets that bundle skeletal muscle masses together and segregate then from one another
  16. Tension Lines
    Natural patterns in the surface of the skin revealing tensions within
  17. Types of Closed Wounds
    • Contusions
    • Hematomas
    • Crush injuries
  18. Contusion
    Closed wound in which the skin is unbroken although damage has occured in to the tissue immediately beneath
  19. Erythema
    General reddening of the skin due to dilation of the superficial capillaries
  20. Ecchymosis
    Blue-black discoloration of the skin due to leakage of blood into the tissues
  21. Hematoma
    Collection of blood beneath the skin or trapped within a body compartment
  22. Crush Injury
    Mechanism of injury in which tissue is locally compressed by high-pressure forces
  23. Crush Syndrome
    Systemic disorder of severe metabolic disturbances resulting from the crush of a limb or other body part
  24. Types of Open Wounds
    • Abrasions
    • Lacerations
    • Incisions
    • Punctures
    • Impaled objects
    • Amputations
  25. Abrasion
    Scraping or abrading away of the superficial layer of the skin. An open soft-tissue injury
  26. Laceration
    An open wound, normally a tear with jagged borders
  27. Incision
    Very smooth or surgical laceration freqently caused by a knife, scalpel, razor blade or glass
  28. Puncture
    Specific soft-tissue injury involving a deep, narrow wound to the skin and underlying organs that carries and increased risk of infection
  29. Impaled Object
    Forein body embedded in a wound
  30. Avulsion
    Forceful tearing away or seperation of body tissue. Partial or complete
  31. Degloving Injury
    Avulsion in which the skin is torn off the underlying muscle, tissue, blood vessels and bone
  32. Amputation
    Severance, removal or detachment either partial or complete, of a body part
  33. Stages of Wound Healing
    • Hemostasis
    • Inflammation
    • Epithelialization
    • Neovascularization
    • Collagen synthesis
  34. Hemostasis
    Body's natural ability to stop bleeding, the ability to clot blood
  35. Inflammation
    Complex process of local cellular and biochemical changes as a consequence of injury or infection. Early stage of healing
  36. Chemotactic Factors
    Chemicals released by white blood cells that attract more white blood cells to an area of inflammation
  37. Granulocytes
    White blood cells charged with the purpose of neutralizing foreign bacteria
  38. Phagocytosis
    Process in which a cell surrounds and absorbs a bacterium or other particle
  39. Epithelialization
    Early stage of wound healing in which epithelial cells migrate over the surface of the wound
  40. Neovascularization
    New growth of capillaries in response to healing
  41. Collagen
    Tough, strong protein that comprises most of the body's connective tissue
  42. Fibroblasts
    Specialized cells that form collagen
  43. Remodeling
    Stage in the wound healing process in which collagen is broken down and relaid in an orderly fashion
  44. Lymphangitis
    Inflammation of the lymph channels, usually as a result of a distal infection
  45. Gas Gangrene
    Deep-space infection usually caused by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium perfringens.
  46. Serous Fluid
    A cellular component of blood similiar to plasma
  47. Compartment Syndrome
    Muscle ischemia that is caused by rising pressures within an anatomical fascial space
  48. Keloid
    A formation resulting from overproduction of scar tissue
  49. Necrosis
    Tissue death, usually from ischemia
  50. Rhabdomyolysis
    Acute pathological process that involves destruction of skeletal muscle
  51. Types of Bandaging and Dressing Material
    • Dressings
    • -Sterile/non-sterile
    • -Occlusive/non-occlusive
    • -Adherent/non-adherent
    • -Absorbent/non-absorbent
    • -Wet/dry
    • Bandages
    • -Self-adherent roller
    • -Gauze
    • -Adhesive
    • -Elastic
    • -Triangular

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