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Anatomy head neck HB2
Head and neck flashcards
Facial nerve emerges from what foramen?
Maxillary branch (V2) of the trigeminal nerve goes through what foramen?
Mandibular branch (V3) of the trigeminal nerve goes through what foramen?
Middle meningeal artery goes through what foramen?
What vessels form the circle of Willis?
Posterior cerebral, posterior communicating, internal carotid (turn into middle cerebral), anterior cerebral, anterior communicating
Where do the Posterior cerebral arteries originate?
Where do the Anterior and Middle cerebral arteries originate?
Internal carotid artery
What nerves run in the cavernous sinus?
CN III, CNIV, CN V1 and V2
What is the main action of the masseter muscle?
close the jaw
What is the main action of the tmeporalis muscle?
Elevates mandible, and retracts mandible
Action of the lateral pterygoid muscle?
Opens jaw, depresses chin, swings jaw from side to side, produces larger lateral chewing motions
Action of the medial pterygoid?
Acts with masseter to eleveate mandible and protrudes jaw
Where does the facial vein drain?
Internal jugular vein
What nerves runs along the posterior aspect of the thryoid gland?
What is the usual source of epidural bleeding?
What is th usual source of subdural bleeding?
Where do the cranial sinuses drain into?
Internal jugular vein
What glands are on the posterior apect of the thyroid gland?
Facial nerve courses through what structure?
Knife wound near the anterior surface of anterior scalene muscle would injur what nerve?
Thyroidectomy, attempting to ligate the superior thyroid arteries, the nerve that courses close to this artery is:
External laryngeal nerve
Which is infrahyoid muscle that is innervated by branches of the ansa cervicalis:
Which would normally be found in the carotid sheath
Internal jugular vein (sympathetic trunk is closley related, not inside)
Accessory nerve to the right SCM injured by gunshot, most likely finding of what motor deficit?
Weakness in turning head to the left
During surgery to thyroid gland, the surgeon should be concerned about damaging a structure that is located close to the posterior aspect of the gland, what structure:
Recurrent laryngeal nerve
What are the content of the carotid sheath?
Internal jugular vein, external carotid artery, vagus nerve
What are the infrahyoid muscles?
Sternohyoid, Sternothyroid, Thyrohyoid, Omohyoid (superior and inferior bellies)
What are the suprahypid muscles?
Mylohyoid, DIgastric (anterior and posterior bellies), Stylohyoid
What nerves traverse the floor of the posterior triangle of the neck?
Accessory nerve to the trapezius and the brachial plexus can be seen between anterior and posterior scalene
Function of Suprahyoid muscles
pull the hyoid up, larynx goes with it
Function of Infrahyoid muscles
depress the hyoid-laryngeal apparatus
What is th eorigin of ansa cervicalis?
C1-C3 of cervical plexus
What nerve courses with the ansa cervicalis for part of its length?
What is the origin of te phrenic nerve?
What gives main blood suply for the face and neck?
External carotid artery
What is the main blood supply to the thyroid gland?
inferior thyroid artery (from thyrocervical trunk) and superior thyroid artery (from external carotid artery)
What does the cervical plexus provide innervation for?
sensory to skin on neck and head, supra and infrahyoid muscles, deep neck muscles, phrenic nerve and ansa cervicalis
Where is the retropharyngeal space?
in front of prevertebral fascia
enters skull through foramen spinosum, supplies the cranial dura mater (branch from maxillary artery)
Facial Nerve (CN VII)
Enters skull through stylomastoid foramen
located in middle cranial fossa lateral to body of sphenoid recieves superior ophthalmic vein and sphenoparietal sinus
formed by the union of inferior sagittal sinus and great cerebral vein
from C3, C4
fascial compartment contains internal jugular vein, common/internal carotid artery, vagus nerve, some deep cervical lymph nodes, and the inferior root of an ansa cervicalis
Bounded by the anterior cervical midline, inferior border of the mandible, and sternocleidomastoid
Bordered by the anterior and posterior bellies of the digastric and the inferior border of the mandible- hypolgossal nerve courses deep in this triangle
Bordered by the posterior belly of the digastric, superior belly of the omohyoid, and the upper part of sternocleidomastoid, contains external carotid artery
bordered by the superior belly of the omohyoid, anterior cervical midline, and the lower part of sternocleidomastoid; contains the sternohyoid, sternothyroid, and thyrohyoid muscles
bordered by the anterior bellies of the digastric and body of the hyoid
Bordered by SCM, clavicle, anterior border of trapezius; accessory nerve descends across the triangle on levator scapulae
Innervation of Sternocleidomastoid
Action of SCM
laterally flexes head and neck and rotates head and neck to opposite side
sternohyoid, omohyoid, thyrohyoid, sternothyroid
Innervation of infrahyoid muscles
stylohyoid, digastric, mylohyoid, geniohyoid
posterior belly of facial nerve, anterior belly of nerve to mylohyoid, branch of mandibular division of trigeminal nerve
nerve to mylohyoid
Action of suprahyoid muscles
elevation of hyoid, larynx, phraynx, motions used for vocalization and deglutition, assist in opening mouth when hyoid is fixed by infrahyoid muscles
Branches of the External Carotid Artery
Superior thryoid, lingual, facial, TERMINAL BRANCHES: Maxillary and superficial temporal arteries
Branches off subclavian, ascends to the angle between scalenus anterior and longus colli, and then traverses the transverse foramina of the upper six cervical vertebrae
Branches of subclavian artery
Vertebral, internal thoracic, thyrocervical trunk
Inferior thyroid artery
Branch off thyrocervial trunk ascends along the medial border of scalenus anterior, posterior to the carotid sheath, and then loops inferiorly to the thyroid gland
Blood supply to thyroid gland
superior thyroid artery (from external carotid) and inferior thyroid artery (from thyrocervical trunk)
Venous drainage of thyroid gland
internal jugular vein (via superior and middle thyroidvein) and brachiocephalic vein (via inferior thyroid vein)
Lymphatic drainage of thyroid gland
Deep cervical lymph nodes
Action of Masseter Muscle
elevation of mandible
Innervation of Masseter muscle
masseteric nerve (branch of mandibular nerve from CNV, trigeminal)
branch of trigeminal (only branch that has motor fibers)
Branches of the trigeminal nerve (CNV)
opthalmic, maxillary, mandibular provide cutaneous innervation of the face
Action and Innervation of Temporalis
elevation and retraction of the mandible innervated by the anterior an dposterior temporal nerves (branches of mandibular nerve)
What nerve does sensory and motor for the larynx?
What is the main blood supply to the larynx?
Superior thyroid artery
What symptom results from improper vbration of the vocal folds?
sit on the posterior aspect of the cricoid cartilage
ring of cartilage below throid cartilage, gets thicker posteriorly
What vessel does the superior thyroid artery branch off of?
What vessell does the inferior thyroid artery branch off of?
thyrocervical trunk (branch from the subclavian)
What does the vocalis muscle do?
part of vocal fold, acts to produce sounds
What nerve innervates the cricothyroid muscle?
Action of posterior cricoarytenoid muscles
abduction of vocal fold
Action of lateral cricoarytenoid muscles
adduction of vocal ligaments