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What do all living things need?
Living things must satisfy their basic needs for energy, water, living space, and stable internal conditions.
What is homeostasis?
The maintenance of stable internal conditions despite changes in the surroundings
What are the characteristics of life?
- growth and development
- getting nutrients
Name the organelle that produces proteins.
What does the Golgi Body do?
Receives materials from the Endoplasmic reticulum and send them to other parts of the cell.
What organelle breaks down food and worn out cell parts?
The __________ is a bunch of passageways that transports materials and nutrients from one part of the cell to another.
What does the Vacuole do?
It stores food, water, and waste
In a plant cell, what do chloroplasts do?
Produce food for the cell.
What is a cell wall and cell membrane?
- Cell wall (plant cells) - a stiff outer coating giving the cell its shape
- Cell Membrane (animal cells) - forms a barrier between the cytoplasm and the outside.
What are the 3 different cells and what are their differences?
- Bacteria cell- no nucleus, has a cell wall and cell membrane
- Animal cell- has a cell membrane (heterotroph)
- Plant cell- has a cell wall and (autotroph) chloroplasts
All organic compounds contain ....
Why is water important to the cell?
Most chemical reactions in cells require water
When molecules move from high concentration to low concentration
The movement of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane is ...
What is the difference between active and passive transport?
- Active- requires energy ex: passing a protein through the cell membrane
- Passive- not requiring energy ex: passing water through the cell membrane
What is the Photosynthesis equation?
- H2O + CO2 = C6H12O6 + O2carbon + water = glucose + oxygen
What happens during respiration?
cells break down simple food molecules such as glucose and release the energy they contain.
Sugar molecules combine to form large molecules called...
Mitosis is the stage during which...
the cells nucleus divides into 2 new nuclei
What are the 4 stages of Mitosis?
- 1: Prophase
- 2: Metaphase
- 3: Anaphase
- 4: Telophase
Explain what happens during Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase
- Prophase: Chromatin forms chromosomes and the spindle fibers form a bridge
- Metaphase: chromosomes line up across the center of the cell, spindle fibers attach
- Anaphase: The chromatids split. The cell becomes stretched out
- Telophase: chromosomes stretch and lose the rod-like appearance, new nuclei membrane form around each region of chromosomes
What experiment did Mendel perform?
He crossed tall and short pea plants and observed the results. Genetics.
What are the difference between dominant and recessive alleles?
- Dominant- always shows up when a recessive allele is present
- Recessive- does not show up unless there are no dominant alleles present
What is a genotype and a phenotype?
- Genotype- genetic makeup, or allele combinations
- Phenotype- physical appearance
What is a punnett square?
A chart that shows all of the possible allele combinations. They are used to determine the probability of a certain genotype appearing.
If 1 dog had a BB allele for black hair, and another dog had a bb allele for white hair, what would be the possible outcomes?
100% black hair, or all Bb combinations
An organism that has 2 identical alleles for a trait is ...
An organism that has 2 different alleles for a trait is...
What is the genetic code?
- A goes with T and G goes with C
What is a mutation?
- Any change that occurs in a gene
- Can be harmful or helpful.
What are the gene codes for male and female?
What is a sex linked trait?
Something that is passed through sex chromosomes and can have a result on the offspring.
How can color blindness be passed down even if the parents do not have it?
If one parent is a carrier for it, then there is a 25% chance that the offspring will be colorblind and a 25% chance that the offspring will be a carrier for it.
What is hemophilia?
A genetic disorder that causes the victim's blood to clot very little or not at all.
What theory did Darwin come up with?
Evolution- that living things evolve and adapt to their environment "survival of the fittest"
Why were there many different types of finches in the Galapagos?
The finches were living on different islands with different foods. For example, finches who ate big nuts had short, hard beaks. Finches who ate seeds had long narrow beaks.
What is evolution?
The gradual change in a species over time?
What is adaptation?
A trait that helps an organism to survive and reproduce
What is natural selection?
Individuals who are better fitted for the environment survive and other don't. Survival of the fittest
What is geographic isolation?
When a group becomes isolated by land or water formations. They adapt to their new environment and form a new species.
What are different types of Evolution?
Overproduction, Variations (a difference within the same species), Natural Selection, competition over food, land
What is a fossil?
the preserved remains or traces of an organism that lived in the past
What type of rock does fossils form in?
Sedimentary, Oldest is at the bottom
What is the difference between absolute dating and relative dating?
- Absolute dating determines the exact age of a fossil using the radioactive elements
- Relative Dating compares 2 fossils to determine which is older
What is the fossil record?
A complete record of all of the fossils scientists have found
What is a homologous structure?
Similar structures that related species have inherited from a common ancestor
What is a Branching Tree and what are it's purposes?
Is a diagram that shows how scientist think different groups of organisms were related through a common ancestor. It shows families of species
What are the six classifications of taxonomy?
What evidence is most important while using relative dating?
the position of fossils in sedimentary rock layers
What theory agrees with fossil records thats show no intermediate forms for long periods of time?
What evidence shows that the ancestors of whales once walked on land?
Scientists have found fossils of whale-like creatures
What is Taxonomy?
The study of how living things are classified
What is a species 2-part name called and who came up with it?
Binomial Nomenclature, Linnaeu
What is the genus and species?
- Genus- classification grouping the closely related organisms
- Species- a group of similar organisms that can mate and produce fertile offspring
What are the six kingdoms?
- Archaebacteria- live in extreme conditions
- Fungi - mushrooms
Where is bacteria's genetic material stored?
not held in the nucleus
What are the 3 shapes of bacteria?
rodlike, spherical, spiral
What are the differences between Archaebacteria and Eubacteria?
- Archaebacteria- live in extreme conditions, live in intestines of animals
- Eubacteria- live in people, most are useful or harmless
What are the two types of bacteria reproduction?
- Asexual- binary fission, a cell divides to form 2 separate cells
- Sexual- 2 parents combine their genetic material during conjugation
Are viruses living? Why?
No, they do not need energy to grow or to respond to their surroundings.
What is a bacteriophage?
a virus, it infects bacteria
How are viruses made up?
The outside coat protects the virus and the inside part that contains genetic materials
How do viruses multiply?
They infect one cell and then spread their genetic material through that cell
What is the difference between active and hidden viruses?
- Active- infects the body and begins right away ex: Flu
- Hidden- remains non active for many years before infecting the body. ex: HIV
What does a vaccine do?
A vaccine provides the body with a dead sample of a virus to stimulate the immune system so it can produce the right immunity to the real thing
What do antibiotics do?
Make you feel the symptoms less, they DO NOT make the virus go away
What are the types of protists?
- Animal like
- Plant like
- Fungus like
In an ameba, what does the pseudopod do?
It is a temporary bulge that traps food and brings it in so the ameba can eat.
What do cilia do for what protist?
They help to move the Paramecium
What are animal like protist called?
What are ciliates?
Protists that move with cilia
What are protist with flagellum called?
What does the contractile vacuole do?
takes in water from the protist and expels it
What are the types of algae?
green algae, red algae and brown algae
What are red tides?
When red algae gain excess nutrients, they form a deadly red tide that turns the saltwater bright red.
Why are red tides dangerous?
They produce toxins that fish can eat and die from.
What is eutrophication?
When nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus build up in a lake or pond, it causes algae blooms.
What is an effect of Eutrophication?
plants or animals at the bottom of the pond will not be able to get sunlight and food and they will die.
What do the hyphae and gills do for the mushroom?
- hyphae- tube like structures that bring water and nutrients through the mushroom
- Gills- makes and releases spores
How do fungi obtain food?
By growing their hyphae into it and sucking out the nutrients
What is stimulus?
the change in surroundings that causes an organism to react
What is the manipulated variable?
in a controlled experiment, it is the variable that scientists change
What is a nucleic acid?
very large organic molecules made of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and phosphorus
What is RNA and DNA?
- RNA- plays an important role in the production of proteins
- DNA-genetic material that carries information about an organism that is passed from parent to offspring
What is an atom and a molecule?
smallest unit of an element, smallest unit of most compounds.
What is osmosis and diffusion?
- the diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane
- molecules tend to move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
What is stomata?
small openings under the plant that allow carbon dioxide to enter
What is respiration?
cells break down simple food molecules such as glucose and release the energy they contain
What is fermentation?
an energy releasing process that does not require oxygen
What is messenger RNA and transfer RNA?
- copies the coded message from the DNA in the nucleus and carries the message into the cytoplasm
- carries amino acids and adds them to the growing protein
What is binary fission?
when a bacteria cell divides to form 2 identical cells
What is an endospore?
small, rounded, thick walled, resting cell that forms inside a bacterial cell