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Reactive Attachment Disorder
Psychiatric illness characterized by serious problems in emotional attachments to others beginning before age 5. Some symptoms include resisting comfort and affection by parents, over friendly with strangers, poor peer relationships, destructive behavior to themselves and others
Three prenatal stages
1. Germinal Stage- 1st stage of prenatal development and refers to the 2 week period following conception
2. Embryonic Stage- 2nd stage of the prenatal development and spans the 2-8 weeks that follow conception; during this stage cells divide and begin to differentiate into bone, muscle, and body organs
3. Fetal Stage- 3rd stage in prenatal development, begins 2 months after conception and lasts until birth
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
results from a mother drinking too heavily during pregnancy, especially in the first 12 weeks. Results in physical changes, such as short stature, flattened nose, and short eye openings
How can parents help fearful children?
parents should be caring and supportive of their children and consistently help them deal with minor stressors
parents should avoid becoming too anxious, overprotective, or angry at their childrens fearfulness
Cognitive Development- how a person percives, thinks, and gains an understanding of his or her world through the interaction and influence of genetic and learned factors
Piagets Stages of Cognitive Development
Stage 1 Sensorimotor (from birth to about age 2)- infants interact with and learn about their enviroments by relating their sensory experiences
Stage 2 Preoperational (from about 2 to 7 years)- children learn to use symbols, such as words or mental images, to solve simple problems and to thnk or talk about things that are not present
Stage 3 Concrete (from about 7 to 11 years)- children can perform a number of logical mental operations on concrete objects
Stage 4 Formal (from about 12 years through adulthood) - adolescents and adults develop the ability to think about and solve abstract problems in a logical manner
5 Stages of Freuds Psychosexual Theory
1 Oral Stage- for the first 18 months of life, infant's pleasure seeksing is centered on the mouth
2 Anal Stage- from about 1 1/2 to 3 years old, infant's pleasure seeking is centered on the anus and its functions of elimination
3 Phallic Stage- age 3 to 6, infants pleasure seeking is centered on the genitals
4 Latency Stage- age 6 to puberty, child represses sexual thoughts and engages in nonsexual activites, such as developing social and intellectual skills
5 Genital State- puberty through adulthood, individual has renewed sexual desires that he or she seeks to fulfill through relationships with members of the opposite sex
Social Cognitive Theory
emphasizes the importance of learning through observation, imitation, and self-reward in the development of social skills, interactions, and behaviors. many of your behaviors are intrinsic
various personality, family, or enviromental factors that compensate for increased life stresses so that expected problems do not develop
individuals subjective experience and feelings of being a female or male
Social Role Theory
emphasizes social and cultural influences, states that gender differences between men and women arise from different divisions of labor
Types of child abuse
the most common is neglect (62%), followed in order by physical abuse and sexual abuse
Major male hormone
Testosterone- stimulates growth of genial organs and developments of secondary sexual characterisitics
he explained the development of moral reasoning in terms of three levels, preconventional, conventional, and postconventional
3 Levels of Moral Reasoning
Level 1 (Self-Interest) Preconventional Level- lowest level, has two stages. Stage 1, moral decisions are based primarily on fear of punishment or the need to be obedient; at stage 2, moral reasoning is guided most by satisfying one's seld interest, which may involve making bargains
Level 2 (Social Approval) Conventional Level- intermediate level has two stages. Stage 3, moral decisions are guided most by conforming to the standards of others we value; stage 4, moral reasoning is determind most by conforming to laws or society
Level 3 (Abstract Ideas) Postconventional Level- highest level of moral reasoning, has one stage. Stage 5, moral decisions are made after carefully thinking about all the alternatives and striking a balance between human rights and laws of society
Styles of Parenting
Authoritarian parents- shape, control, and evaluate the behavior and attitudes of their children in accordance with a set standard conduct, usually an absolute standard that comes from religious or respected authorities
Authoritative parents- direct their children's activities in a rational and intelligent way. They are supportive, loving, and committed, encourage verbal give-and-take, and discuss their rules and policies with their children
Permissive parents- less controlling and behave with a nonpunishing and accepting attitude toward their children's impulses, desires, and actions; they consult with their children about policy decisions, make few demands, and tend to use reason rather than direct power
how much we like ourselves and how much we value our self-worth, importance, attractiveness, and social competence
Love Triangle and what does the triangular theory mean?
has three components; passion, intimacy, and commitment. Passion is feeling physically aroused and attracted to someone Intimacy is feeling close and connected to someone; it develops through sharing and communicating. Commitment is making a pledge to nourish the feeling of love and to actively maintain the relationships
What is a schema?
is an organized mental or cognitive list that includes characteristics, facts, values, or beliefs about people, events, or objects.
What is the aging process?
is caused by a combination of certain genes and proteins that interfere with organ functioning and the natural production of toxic molecules (free radicals) which in turn cause random damage to body organs and DNA. Such damage eventually exceeds the bodies ability to repair itself and results in greater susceptibility to disease and death.
Aging process for men.
As men age they usually become more sexually active but are unable to keep up with their bodies demands. This is turn can lower self esteem and self image.
Aging process for women.
Women go through menopause where their bodies begin to slow the production of estrogen. Researchers find no correlation between decreased levels of hormones and sexual activity.
How do you recognize someone who is suicidal?
The most common psychological problems include depression, feelings of helplessness, and drug-related problems. These problems have usually persist for some time. Common behavioral include decline in school performance, social isolation, and withdrawl; intense difficulties with parents, siblings and peers.
How can suicide be prevented?
- Identify risk factors- mood disorders, drug abuse, previous suicide attempts, suicide of a friend, and other major life stress.
- Medical and Psychological evaluation- interview with patient as well as family. Then set up treatment plan
- 1. contract- so person does not hurt themselves
- 2. lethal means are removed from home
- 3. support and a 24 hour contact are provided
are wishes, desires, or thoughts that we are aware of, or can recall, at any given moment
Unconscious Mind, Unconscious forces, and Unconscious motivation
represents wishes, desires, or thoughts that, because of their disturbing or threatening content, we automatically repress and cannot voluntarily access
is a Freudian concept that refers to the influences or repressed thoughts, desires, or impulses on our conscious thoughts and behaviors.
What are techniques to uncover the unconscious mind?
Free association, dream interpretation, and Freudian slips
is a Freudian technique in which clients are encouraged to talk about any thoughts or images that enter their head; the assumption is that this kind of free-flowing, uncensored talking will provide clues to unconscious material.
a Freudian technique of analyzing dreams, is based on the assumption that dreams contain underlying, hidden meaning and symbols that provide clues to unconscious thoughts and desires. Freud distinguished between the dream's obvious story or plot, called a manifest content, and the dream's hidden or disguised meanings of symbols, called latent content.
are mistakes or slips of the tongue that we make in everyday speech; such mistakes, which are often embarrassing, are thought to reflect unconscious thoughts or wishes.
What are the divisions of the mind?
Id, Ego, Super Ego
which is Freud's first division of the mind to develop, contains two biological drives- sex and aggression- that are the source of all psychic or mental energy; the goal of this division is to pursue pleasure and satisfy the biological drives
Freud's second division of the mind, develops from the id during infancy; this division's is to find safe and socially acceptable ways to satisfying the id's desires and to negotiate between the id's wants and superegos's prohibitions
Freud's third division of the mind, develops from the ego during early childhood; this division's goal is to apply the moral values and standards of one's parents or cargivers and society in satisfying one's wishes.
What is anxiety?
the Freudian theory, is an uncomfortable feeling that results from inner conflicts between the primitive desires of the Id and the moral goals of the superego.
What are the defense mechanisms the brain can use?
- Freudian processes that operate at unconscious levels and that use self-deception or untrue explanations to protect the ego from being overwhelmed by anxiety
- Rationalism, Denial, Repression, Projection, Reaction Formation, Displacement, Sublimation.
Who is Albert Adler?
Believed that the main factors influencing a child's development were sibling influences and child-rearing practices. Also proposed that humans are motivated by social urges and that each person is a social being with a unique personality, and we are aware of our motives and goals and have capacity to guide and plan futures.
Who was Karen Horney?
Insisted that the major influences on personality development, whether in women or men, can be found in child-parent social interactions. Believed every child must experience child-parent conflicts
What is the humanistic theory?
emphasize our capacity for personal growth, development of our potential, and freedom to choose our destiny. Characteristics include: phenomenological perspective, holistic view, and self-actualization.
means that your perception or view of the world, whether or not it is accurate, becomes your reality.
means that a person's personality is more than the sum of its individual parts; instead, the individual parts form a unique and total entity that functions as a unit.
refers to our inherent tendency to develop and reach our true potentials.
Who is Carl Rogers?
believed Freud emphasized too much on unconscious , irrational forces and on biological urges, and too little emphasis on human potential for psychological growth. Created a new theory that put emphasis on the self or self-concept.
What are projective tests? Describe two.
- require individuals to look at some meaningless objects or ambiguous photo and describe what they see. In describing or making up a story about the ambiguous object, individuals are assumed to project both their conscious and unconscious feelings, needs and motives.
- Rorschach Inkblot Test and Thematic Apperception Test are two examples.