Science Midterm Study

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Science Midterm Study
2011-01-15 22:21:28

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  1. Science
    organized way to use evidence to learn about the natural world.
  2. Observation
    gathering information using the 5 senses.
  3. Data
    information gathered during observation or experimentation.
  4. Inference
    a logical interpretation based on prior knowledge or experience.
  5. Hypothesis
    proposed scientific explanation for a set of observations and must be proposed in a way that enables them to be tested.
  6. Theory
    as evidence from numerous investigations builds up, a particular hypothesis may become well supported.
  7. Spontaneous Generation
    the idea that life could arise from non-living matter.
  8. Metabolism
    the combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life proces.
  9. Homeosatsis
    process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment.
  10. Biology
    The science that seeks to understand the living world.
  11. Metric System
    a decimal system of measurement whose units are based on certain physical standards.
  12. Atom
    Basic unit of matter.
  13. Nucleus
    center of the atom.
  14. Electron
    in constant motion in the space around nucleus.
  15. Element
    more than 100 known. Represented by letter symbol.
  16. Compound
    substance formed by the chemical combination of 2 or more elements in definite proportions.
  17. Ion
    - or + charged atoms differ in electrons.
  18. Covalent Bond
    forms when electrons are shared between atoms.
  19. Molecule
    smallest unit of most compounds.
  20. pH Scale
    measurement system to indicate the concentration of H+ ions in solutions.
  21. Acid
    any compound that forms H+ ions in solution.
  22. Base
    compound that produces hydroxide ions in solutions.
  23. Monomer
    small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers.
  24. Polymer
    large compound formed from combinations of many monomers.
  25. Carbohydrate
    compound made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms, usually in a ratio of 1:2:1.
  26. Monosaccharide
    single sugar molecule.
  27. Lipid
    made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms.
  28. Nucleic Acids
    macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus.
  29. Protein
    macromolecule that contains nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
  30. Amino Acid
    proteins are polymers of molecules.
  31. Catalyst
    substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction.
  32. Enzyme
    protein that act as biological catalysts.
  33. Solutions
    components are evenly distributed throughout the solution.
  34. Suspensions
    mixtures of water and nondissolved materials.
  35. Cell
    basic unit of life.
  36. Active Transport
    energy requiring proccess that moves materials across a cell membrane against a concentration difference.
  37. Passive Transport
    the moving of materials across the cell membrane.
  38. Autotroph
    organisms (plants) that make their own food.
  39. Heterotrophs
    organisms that gain energy from the food they consume.
  40. ATP
    one of the principal chemical compounds that living things use to store and release energy.
  41. Photosynthesis
    process where plants use the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into high energy carbohydrates-sugars + starches- and oxygen, a waste product.
  42. Pigments
    light absorbing molecule.
  43. Chlorophyll
    principal pigment of plants and other photosynthetic organisms, captures light energy.
  44. G1 Phase
    most of cell growth.
  45. S Phase
    chromosomes replicated and synthesis of DNA.
  46. G2 Phase
    many organelles and molecules are produced for division.
  47. Prophase
    centrioles seperate, spindle forms, nuclear envelope breaks down.
  48. Metaphase
    chromosomes line up in center. Spindle fiber to chromosomes, to centromere.
  49. Anaphase
    sister chromatids seperate.
  50. Telophase
    two new nuclear envelopes form around new chromosomes.
  51. Cytokinesis
    • cytoplasm pinches in half.
    • In plants, cell plate.
  52. Puberty
    period of rapid growth and sexual maturation during which the reproductive system becomes fully functional.
  53. Scrotum
    external sac containing the testes.
  54. Seminiferous Tubule
    one of hundreds of tiny tubules in the testes in which sperm are produced.
  55. Epididymis
    structure in male reproductive system in which sperm fully mature and are stored.
  56. Zygote
    fertilized egg.
  57. Fertilization
    male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell.
  58. Placenta
    organ in placental mammals through which nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and wastes are exchanged between embryo and mother.
  59. Blastocyst
    a hollow structre with an inner cavity.
  60. Heterozygous
    two different alleles for the same trait.
  61. Homozygous
    two identical allels for a particular trait.
  62. Dominant
    an allele that is more influential.
  63. Recessive
    the less influential allele.
  64. Hybrid
    offspring of a cross of parents with different traits.
  65. Codominance
    both allele attribute to the phenotype.
  66. Multiple Alleles
    3 or more alleles of the same.
  67. Incomplete Dominance
    one allele is not completely dominant over the other.
  68. Polygenic Trait
    traits controlled by 2 or more genes.