Emergency Procedures

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Author:
jnas2020
ID:
59998
Filename:
Emergency Procedures
Updated:
2011-01-17 18:02:27
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EP
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Description:
Chapter 9
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  1. Immediate Actions Emergency Actions: Note
    The urgency of certain emergencies requires immediate and instinctive action by the pilot. The most important single consideration is HELICOPTER CONTROL. All procedures are SUBORDINATE to this requirement. If time permits during a critical emergency, TRANSMIT MAYDAY CALL, SET TRANSPONDER TO EMERGENCY, TURN THE ELT ON, AND LOCK THE SHOULDER HARNESSES
  2. After emergency action
    After a malfunction of equip, approp. emerg actions have been taken, and helicopter is on ground, entry on DA 2408-13-1 describing malfunction. Ground and flight ops shall be discont. until corrective action has been taken
  3. Land as soon as possible
    Land without delay to the nearest suitable area (ie., open field) in which a safe approach and landing is reasonably assured. The primary consideration is to ensure the survival of the occupants.
  4. Land as soon as practicable
    The landing sight and duration of the flight are at the discretion of the pilot. Extended flight beyond the nearest approved landing area is not recommended. The primary consideration is the urgency of the emergency.
  5. Autorotate
    Adjusting the flight controls as necessary to establish an autorotational descent and landing.

    COLLECTIVE-ADJUST as req. to maintain rotor RPM (90-107%)

    PEDALS-ADJUST: crab or slip as req.

    THROTTLE-ADJUST AS NECESSARY. close as required

    AIRSPEED-ADJUST as req.
  6. Emergency Shutdown
    Engine shutdown without delay.

    THROTTLE-CLOSE

    FUEL VALVE SWITCH-OFF

    BATTERY SWITCH-OFF AS DESIRED. Before turning the battery switch off during an in-flight emerg., the pilot should consider a "Mayday call," selecting emergency on the transponder and the possible effects of total electrical failure
  7. Autorotational Airspeeds: Minimum rate of descent and maximum glide distance
    52KIAS min descent

    69KIAS max glide distance
  8. Engine failure at a hover
    Autorotate

    Emergency Shutdown
  9. Partial or complete power loss: WARNING
    Do not respond to the RPM warning syst. by entering autorotation and reducing the throttle without first confirming ENGINE MALFUNCTION by one or more of the other indications:

    • 1.left yaw
    • 2. drop in engine RPM (N1 and N2)
    • 3. drop in rotor RPM
    • 4. low rotor RPM audio alarm (steady tone)
    • 5. illumination of the LOW ROTOR RPM caution light
    • 6. change in engine noise
  10. Engine failure: low altitude/low airspeed or cruise
    Autorotate

    Emerg Shutdown
  11. Engine restart during flight: caution
    Do not attempt air start above 12,000 ft MSL (Turb outlet temp rises too fast to control)
  12. Partial or complete power loss:
    If the power loss is total, the _________ warning light will activate and an intermittent (warbling) tone will be heard.

    _____to_____KIAS is recommended during the descent. Under ideal conditions, approx. ___minute is required to regain powered flight from the time the attempted start is begun.
    ENGINE OUT

    52 TO 60 KIAS

    ONE MINUTE
  13. Engine restart during flight: If the decision is made to attempt an in-flight start:
    THROTTLE-CLOSE

    FUEL VALVE SWITCH-ON

    ATTEMPT START

    LAND AS SOON AS POSSIBLE
  14. Engine compressor stall may be characterized by a _______or a series of loud______, severe______and a rapid rise in ______.
    sharp rumble

    sharp reports

    engine vibration

    turb out temp
  15. Should engine compressor stall occur:
    COLLECTIVE-REDUCE

    ENGINE ANTI-ICE AND HEATER SWITCHES-OFF

    LAND AS SOON AS POSSIBLE
  16. Engine overspeed will be indicated by a ________yaw, rapid increase in both ____and _____RPM, and an increase in _____and _____noise.
    RIGHT

    ROTOR AND ENGINE

    ENGINE AND ROTOR
  17. If an engine overspeed is experienced:
    COLLECTIVE-INCREASE to load the rotor and sustain engine/rotor RPM below the max op. limit

    THROTTLE-ADJUST until normal operating RPM is attained

    LAND AS SOON AS POSSIBLE. Perform a power-on approach and landing by controlling the RPM manually with the throttle.
  18. Engine overspeed: If RPM cannot be controlled by throttle adjustment:
    AUTOROTATE when over a safe landing area

    EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN-accomplish during descent if time permits
  19. If an engine underspeed occurs, the collective must be adjusted _______ to maintain_____RPM within limits.
    DOWNWARD

    ROTOR
  20. Engine underspeed: If powered flight with rotor in the green can be accomplished:
    LAND AS SOON AS POSSIBLE in an area that will permit a run-on landing.
  21. Engine underspeed: An engine underspeed below 90% results in rotor RPM decay below minimum safe limits. Should this occur:
    AUTOROTATE

    EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN-accomp. during the descent if time permits
  22. If engine surges are experienced:
    GOV INCR SWITCH-INCR FOR MAX RPM

    THROTTLE-ADJUST TO 97% N2

    LAND AS SOON AS POSSIBLE
  23. If engine surges are not controlled with other measures/adjustments:
    AUTOROTATE-when over a safe landing area

    EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN-accomplish during descent if time permits
  24. WARNING
    Fuel boost pump failure: Operation with both fuel boost pumps inoperative is ___ authorized. Due to possible fuel sloshing in unusual attitudes and out of trim conditions and one or both fuel boost pumps inoperative, the unusable fuel is ______gallons.
    NOT

    TEN
  25. With one or both fuel pumps inoperative:
    Descend to below 6,000 ft. pressure altitude if possible

    Land as soon as PRACTICABLE
  26. Low inlet pressure/engine icing: Caution
    Takeoff with low inlet presure caution light is prohibited
  27. Low inlet pressure: LOW INLET PRESSURE CAUTION LIGHT ON:
    ENGINE ALTERNATE AIR SWITCH -OPEN

    IF CAUTION LIGHT REMAINS ON, LAND AS SOON AS POSSIBLE

    IF CAUTION LIGHT GOES OUT, LAND AS SOON AS PRACTICABLE. Related engine parameters should be monitored freq. until landing
  28. Engine icing note: When anti-icing system is ON, TOT will______for same power setting.
    ENGINE ANTI-ICING SWITCH-ON (IF CONDITIONS WARRANT)

    TURB OUT TEMP-MAINTAIN WITHIN LIMITS
  29. Low engine oil pressure/high engine oil temperature. If the engine oil pressure is below___PSI or the temp is above ___C.
    50

    107

    LAND AS SOON AS POSSIBLE
  30. Low engine oil pressure/high engine oil temp-NOTE. If engine oil pressure is ____or ____ and the oil temp is ____or ____, a sever leak may be present.
    FALLING or LOW

    RISING or HIGH
  31. Air conditioning malfunction. The type of malfunction that would create a potential emergency involves a failure of the compressor or drive belt that would cause a noticeable _______or________.
    VIBRATION or NOISE

    AIR CONDITIONING AND FAN SWITCH-OFF

    LAND AS SOON AS PRACTICABLE
  32. FIXED PITCH SETTING is a malfunction involving a loss of control resulting in a fixed pitch setting. Whether the nose of the helicopter yaws left or right is dependent upon the amount of pedal applied at the time of malfunction. Regardless of pedal setting at the time of malfunction, a varying amount of tail rotor thrust will be delivered at _____ _____during flight.
    ALL TIMES
  33. Fixed pitch settings-Reduced power(low torque).

    Indications: The nose of the helicopter will turn ____when power is applied.
    RIGHT
  34. Fixed pitch settings-Reduced power(low torque)

    Procedure: If helicopter control can be maintained in powered flight, the best solution is to maintain control with _____and accomplish a ______landing as soon as _______. Use airspeed, _______, and collective to reduce the sideslip angle at touchdown.

    If helicopter control cannot be maintained, ______the throttle immediately and accomplish an autorotational landing.
    POWER

    RUN-ON

    PRACTICABLE

    THROTTLE

    CLOSE
  35. Fixed pitch settings-Increased power (high torque)

    Indications: The nose of the helicopter will turn_____when power is reduced.
    LEFT
  36. Fixed pitch settings: Increased power (high torque)

    Procedures:

    a.) Maintain control with power and _____. (Between _____ and ____ knots.)

    b.) Continue _____flight to a suitable landing area where a ____ landing can be accomplished.

    c.) Execute a _____landing with _____ and a touchdown speed which will minimize sideslip. Use ______ and collective, as necessary, to control sideslip and heading at touchdown.
    a.) AIRSPEED, 40 AND 70 KNOTS

    b.) POWERED, RUN-ON

    c.) RUN-ON, POWER, THROTTLE
  37. Fixed pitch settings-At a hover

    Indication: Helicopter _______cannot be controlled with pedals.

    Procedure: Fixed pedal-________
    HEADING

    LAND
  38. Loss of tail rotor components-
    The severity of this situation is dependent upon the amt. of _____lost. Any loss of this nature will result in a _____center of gravity shift, requiring _____cyclic. A full _____descent and landing should be acccomplished with a ______type termination if to an improved surface, or ______ground run if to an unimproved surface. Landing should be accomplished in a level attitude.
    WEIGHT

    FORWARD

    AFT

    AUTOROTATIONAL

    RUN-ON

    MINIMUM
  39. Loss of tail rotor components:

    Indications:

    1.) Varying degrees of ______yaw depending on power applied and airspeed at the time of failure.

    2.) ______ CG shift.
    1.) RIGHT

    2.) FORWARD
  40. Loss of tail rotor components-Procedures:
    1.) ______________________
    2.) Maintain airspeed above ______airspeed.
    3.) If run-on landing is possible, complete autorotation with touchdown airspeed _________ for directional control.
    4.) If run-on landing is not possible, start to decelerate from about ____ft. altitude, so that forward groundspeed is at a _____. When the helicopter reaches _____to____ft; execute the touchdown with a _____collective pull just prior to touchdown in a _____attitude with minimum ground run.
    1.) ENTER AUTOROTATIVE DESCENT (THROTTLE CLOSED).

    2.) MINIMUM RATE OF DESCENT

    3.) AS REQUIRED

    • 4.) 75 FEET
    • MINIMUM
    • 10 TO 20FT
    • RAPID
    • LEVEL
  41. Loss of tail rotor effectiveness: This is a situation involving a loss of effectiveness tail rotor thrust without a break in the drive system which cannot be stopped with full _____pedal application. If LTE is experienced, simultaneously:

    1.)
    2.)
    3.)
    4.) If spin cannot be stopped and crash is imminent, an autorotation may be the best course of action. Maintain full ____pedal until the spin stops, then adjust to maintain heading.
    • 1.) PEDAL-FULL LEFT
    • 2.) CYCLIC-FORWARD
    • 3.) AS RECOVERY IS AFFECTED, ADJUST CONTROLS FOR NORMAL FLIGHT
    • 4.) AUTOROTATION, LEFT
  42. Loss of tail rotor effectivness: WARNING

    Collective ______will aid in arresting the yaw rate; however, if a rate of descent has been est., collective reduction may increase the rate of descent to an excessive value. The resultant large and rapid increase in collective to prevent ground or obstacle contact may further increase the yaw rate, decrease the rotor RPM and cause an over torque and/or over-temp condition. Therefore, the decision to reduce collective must be based on the _____ _________ of the altitude available for recovery.
    REDUCTION

    PILOT ASSESSMENT
  43. Complete loss of tail rotor thrust:
    WARNING:

    Degree of roll and side-slip may be varied by varying ______and/or_______. (At airspeeds below approx. ___knots, the side-slip may become uncontrollable, and the helicopter will begin to spin on the vertical axis.)
    THROTTLE

    COLLECTIVE

    50
  44. Complete Loss of Tail Rotor Thrust-This situation involves a break in the drive system, such as a severed driveshaft, causing the tail rotor to lose power.

    Indications:
    1.)
    2.)
    3.)
    • 1.) PEDAL INPUT HAS NO EFFECT ON HELICOPTER TRIM
    • 2.) NOSE OF THE HELICOPTER TURNS TO THE RIGHT (LEFT SIDESLIP)
    • 3.) LEFT ROLL OF FUSELAGE ALONG THE LONGITUDINAL AXIS
  45. Complete Loss of Tail Rotor Thrust-Procedures:

    1.) If safe landing area is not immediately available, continue ______flight to suitable landing area or above _______ _____ __ ________ _________airspeed.

    2.) When landing area is reached, make an _________landing (Throttle ______.)

    3.) Use airspeed above _____ _____ __ ________ airspeed.
    1.) POWERED, MINIMUM RATE OF DESCENT AUTOROTATIONAL

    2.) AUTOROTATIONAL, CLOSED

    3.) MINIMUM RATE OF DESCENT

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