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Explain about the incident rate of infections in hospital?
The incident rate of clients developing infections as a DIRECT result of hospital stays and proceedures is increasing.
As a result several states have passed legislation requiring hospitals to report the rates and types of infections for facilities.
TJC is viewing the increase in the rate of infections as a health and safety issue.
What are the two mechanisms for creating a safe health care environment for clients and staff?
Infection prevention and control.
Why are clients in all health care settings at risk for acquiring infections?
1) Due to a decreased resistance to infectious microorganisms,
2) increased exposure to the numbers and types of disease causing microorganisms, and
3) invasive proceedures
When teaching a client and their family to recognize infections and protective measures, what are the three things that you should be teaching?
1) basic information on infection,
2) the various modes of transmission, and
3) methods of prevention appropriate to their care needs.
What does it mean to say that infections are infectious?
- Infections that are infectious MAY or MAY NOT pose a risk for transmission.
- For example, viral menigitis and pneumonia. Both are caused by a pathogen, but they can not be transmitted to another person.
What does it mean to say that the infection is communicable?
This is in infectious disease (caused by a pathogen - microorganism) that can be directly transmitted from one person to the other.
What is the definition of infection?
It is the entry and multiplication of an organism in a host.
- Just because the pathogen (infectious agent) is present in the host, does not mean that the infection will occur.
- For example, is someone with a cold sneezes directly into my face, it does not mean that I will develop an infection. This is called COLONIZATION.
What is the Chain of Infection?
* An infectous agent (pathogen)
* Reservoir (place where the pathogen can survive) - may or may not multiply.
The most common reservoir is the human body.
To survive, organisms must have food, water, temperature, pH, and light.
* Portal of Exit (blood, skin (break in the skin), mucous membrane, respiratory tract (sneezing and coughing), urinary tract (in UTIs), gastrointesinal tract (kissing, bowell elimination, surgical wounds), reproductive tract (HIV, STDs, etc) and blood.
* Mode of Transmission (such as mosquitos, *unwashed hands (#1 in health care setting), respiratory droplets, etc)
* Portal of Entry (same as Portal of Exit)
* Susceptible Host (depends on the degree of susceptibility to the infectous agent)
What is the progressive course of an infection?
1) Incubation period (from the time of entry to the time symptoms appear)
2) Prodromal Stage (from onset of nonspecific signs and symptoms to the onset of specific symptoms)
3) Illness Stage (internal when signs and symptoms specific to the infection occur)
4) Convalenscence Stage (Interval when the acute symptoms of infection disappear)