World History

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World History
2011-01-17 20:38:26

So I can study for the history exam.
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  1. Archaeology
    The study of ancient cultures through artifacts
  2. Anthropology
    The study of humankind through their bones
  3. Ethics
    Moral principles governing the appropriate conduct for a person or group
  4. Arête
    Narrow mountain ridge; excellence of any kind
  5. Ostracism
    To exclude of banish from society
  6. Patricians
    Somebody with upper-class characteristics aristocrat
  7. Plebeians
    Somebody who is ill-educated or among the normal people
  8. Vernacular
    The language spoken in a particular region
  9. Schism
    Separation within a religion or group
  10. Guild
    Medieval trade association
  11. Reign of Terror
    The period of the French Revolution between September 1793 and July 1794, during which thousands of people were executed as enemies of the revolution
  12. Congress of Vienna
    a congress held in Vienna between 1814 and 1815 to deal with the territorial and jurisdictional problems remaining after the defeat of Napoleon in the Napoleonic Wars
  13. Realpolitik
    Politics based on pragmatism or practicality rather than on ethical or theoretical considerations created by Otto Van Bismark.
  14. Laissez-faire
    An economic doctrine that opposes governmental regulation of or interference in commerce beyond the minimum necessary for a
  15. What were the 3 motivations for exploration?
    • God
    • Gold
    • Glory
  16. Direct Democracy
    Where everyone can participate in government decisions.
  17. Absolutism
    A political system in which the power of a ruler is unchecked and absolute. The ruler has total power.
  18. Adam Smith
    Father of Capitalism
  19. Alexander the Great
    A towering Macedonian figure in ancient history, Alexander the Great came close to conquering the entire civilized world of his day
  20. Allah
    Islamic name of god
  21. Anglican Church
    The Church of England (Protestant); King Henry VIII wanted to divorce his wife Catherine of Aragon. After the Catholic Church refused he created his own church and made himself the head of it.
  22. Anschluss
    German unification with Austria
  23. Apartheid
    A political system in South Africa from 1948 to the early 1990s that separated the different peoples living there and gave privileges to those of European origin.
  24. Francis Ferdinand
    Duke of Austria who was assassinated by member, of the black hand, Gavrilo Princip which began WWI.
  25. Aristocracy
    An upper class whose wealth is based on land whose power is passed on from one generation to another.
  26. Aristotle
    • One of the "big three" in ancient Greek philosophy. He found three good forms of government:
    • Monarchy
    • Aristocracy
    • Constitutional Government
  27. Articles of Confederation
    Early U.S. constitution (1781 – 1789) under the government by the Continental Congress, replaced in 1787 by the U.S. Constitution. It provided for a confederation of sovereign states and gave the Congress power to regulate foreign affairs, war, and the postal service, to control Indian affairs, and to borrow money.
  28. Augustus Caesar
    The greatest ruler of Rome, he was a conundrum: a ruthless politician and soldier who used his power to restore order and prosperity to Rome with such success that his reign (27 B.C. to 14 A.D.)
  29. Axis Powers
    Germany, Italy, and Japan, opponents of Allies in World War II
  30. Balance of Trade
    The difference between the value of the total imports and total exports of a country as assessed over a fixed period
  31. Benito Mussolini
    The Fascist dictator of Italy during World War II. He then spent time in exile in Switzerland and Austria, where he worked writing and editing socialist newspapers. He returned to Italy after serving in World War I and gained power and notoriety as a revolutionary nationalist
  32. Bill of Rights
    Ten amendments that guaranteed the freedom of religion, speech, press, petition, and assembly, and also the right to bear arms.
  33. Blitzkrieg
    "Lightning War" created by the Germans.
  34. Bourgeoisie
    The middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people in France.
  35. Buddhism
    A religious doctrine introduced in Norther India by Siddhartha Gautama(Buddha)
  36. Bureaucracy
    An administrative organization that relies on nonelective officials and regular procedures.
  37. Capital
    Money available for investment.
  38. Caste System
    A set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person’s occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society
  39. Causes of the French Revolution
    Resentment of royal absolutism, resentment of the seigniorial system by peasants, wage-earners, and a rising bourgeoisie, the rise of enlightenment ideals, an unmanageable national debt, both caused by and exacerbating the burden of a grossly inequitable system of taxation, and food scarcity in the years immediately before the revolution
  40. Central Powers
    Its primary members were the German empire and Austria-Hungary, the "central" European states that were at war from August 1914 against France, Britain, and Russia. The Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Central Powers in October 1914, followed by Bulgaria in October 1915.
  41. Charlemagne
    The Frankish king who conquered most of Europe and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in the year 800
  42. Common Law
    A uniform system of law that developed in England based on court decisions and on customs and usage rather than on written law codes; replace law codes that varied from place to place
  43. Confucianism
    The system of political and ethical ideas formulated by the Chinese philosopher Confucius toward the end of the Zhou dynasty; it was intended to help restore order to a society that was in a state of confusion.
  44. Containment
    The attempt to keep communism within its existing regions
  45. Count Camillo di Cavour
    a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification. He was the founder of the original Italian Liberal Party and Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, a position he maintained (except for a six-month resignation) throughout the Second Italian War of Independence and Garibaldi's campaigns to unite Italy.
  46. Count Otto von Bismarck
    Prussian statesman who founded the German Empire in 1871 and served as its chancellor for 19 years.
  47. Covenant
    Legally binding agreement
  48. Czar
    Ruler of Russia
  49. Daoism
    A system of ideas based on the teachings of Laozi teaches that the will of Heaven is best followed through inaction so that nature is allowed to take its course.
  50. Deism
    An eighteenth-century religious philosophy based on reason and natural law.
  51. Dharma
    The divine law that rules karma; it requires all people to do their duty based on their status in society.
  52. Domestic reforms of Napoleon
    Napoleon controlled prices, encouraged new industry, and built roads and canals. He set up a system of public schools under strict government control to ensure well-trained officials and military officers. At the same time, Napoleon backed off from some of the revolution's social reforms. He made peace with the Catholic Church in the Concordat of 1801. The Concordat kept the Church under state control but recognized religious freedom for Catholics.
  53. Dominion
    Self governing territory
  54. Enabling Act
    Gave the government power to ignore the constitution for four years
  55. English Civil War
    (1642 – 1651) Armed conflict in the British Isles between Parliamentarians and supporters of the monarchy (Royalists)
  56. Enlightenment
    An 18th-century intellectual movement in Western Europe that emphasized reason and science in philosophy and in the study of human culture and the natural world
  57. Estates-General
    The first French parliament.
  58. European Union
    The name for the more solidified political and economic organization of European countries that created, as one of its first goals, a common form of currency for Europe known as the Euro
  59. Fascism
    A political philosophy that glorifies the state above the individual by emphasizing the need for a strong central government led by a dictatorial ruler.
  60. Federal System
    A form of government in which power is shared between the national government and state governments.
  61. Ferdinand Magellan
    The first guy to circumnavigate the Earth
  62. Feudalism
    Political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages, when royal governments were no longer able to defend their subjects; nobles offered protection and land in return for service.
  63. Five Pillars of Islam
    Five duties incumbent on every Muslim. The first is the profession of faith in the one God and in Muhammad as his Prophet. The others are prayer five times a day, the giving of alms to the poor, fasting during the month of Ramadan, and the hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca.
  64. Five Year plans
    Set economic goals. The goal was to transform Russia into an industrial country. It emphasized maximum production of capital goods.
  65. Four Noble Truths
    Statements of the basic doctrines of Buddhism. They were formulated by the Buddha Gautama in his first sermon. The truths are (1) existence is suffering; (2) desire, or thirst, is its cause; (3) the cessation of suffering is possible; and (4) the way to accomplish this is to follow the Eightfold Path. Though differently interpreted, these four truths are recognized by virtually all Buddhist schools.
  66. Franklin Delano Roosevelt
    President during most of World War II. Died during his 3rd term.
  67. Galileo Galilei
    The inventor of the astronomical telescope
  68. Gamal Abdel Nasser
    Gamal Abdel Nasser (Gamal Abd El-Nasser) led Egypt to secular independence in the 1950s and held the office of president from 1956 until his death in 1970.
  69. Giuseppe Garibaldi
    unified Souther Italy
  70. Global economy
    An economy in which the production distribution and sale of goods take place on a worldwide scale.
  71. Great Leap Forward
    Failed industrialization campaign undertaken by the Chinese communists between 1958 and early 1960.
  72. Hammurabi
    Created a code which is one of the earliest known examples of human laws being defined and written down in an orderly way.
  73. Heresy
    The denial of basic church doctrines
  74. Hinduism
    The major Indian religious system, which had its origins in the religious beliefs of the Aryans who settled India after B.C.
  75. Holy Roman Empire
    A loosely federated European political entity that began with the papal coronation of the German king Otto I as the first emperor in 962 and lasted until Francis II's renunciation of the title at the instigation of Napoleon in 1806. The empire was troubled by papal-secular squabbles over authority and after the 13th century by the rising ambitions of nationalistic states. By 1273 the empire consisted primarily of the Hapsburg domains in Austria and Spain
  76. Humanism
    An intellectual movement of the Renaissance based on the study of the humanities, which included grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral philosophy and history.
  77. Indulgence
    Money given the pope to forgive a person of sin
  78. Interdict
    A decree by th pope that forbade priests to give the sacraments of the church to people.
  79. Intifada
    "uprising" militant movement that arose during the 1980's among supporters of the Palestine Liberation Organization living in Israel.
  80. Islam
    a monotheistic religion based on the word of God as revealed to Muhammad during the 7th century
  81. Jesuits
    a member of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order engaged in missionary and educational work worldwide. The order was founded by Saint Ignatius Loyola in 1534 with the objective of defending Catholicism against the Reformation.
  82. Johannes Gutenberg
    Inventor of the printing press
  83. John Locke
    widely known as the Father of Liberalism. He was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers. Considered one of the first of the British empiricists.
  84. Julius Caesar
    Part of the first Triumvirate but after after a civil war he emerged as the leader and remembered as one of the best generals. (Roman)
  85. Karl Marx
    Father of Communism
  86. Karma
    In Hinduism, the force generated by a person's actions that determines how the person will be reborn in the next life.
  87. Korean War
    Began in 1950 as an attempt of Communist North Korea to take over South Korea. Mostly U.S. troops but UN forces pushed the North Korean army back and China joined fearing an invasion of China.
  88. Laozi
    First philosopher of Chinese Daoism.
  89. Latin America
    The entire western hemisphere south of the United States
  90. League of Nations
    A world organization established in 1920 by Woodrow Wilson to promote international cooperation and peace. It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined the League. Essentially powerless, it was officially dissolved in 1946
  91. Lebensraum
    Living space through expansion
  92. Legalism
    Originated in China. Human beings were evil by nature and Humans need strict laws and stiff punishment.
  93. Leonardo da Vinci
    Best remembered as the painter of the Mona Lisa (1503-1506) and The Last Supper (1495). But he's almost equally famous for his astonishing multiplicity of talents: he dabbled in architecture, sculpture, engineering, geology, hydraulics and the military arts, all with success, and in his spare time doodled parachutes and flying machines that resembled inventions of the 19th and 20th centuries. He made detailed drawings of human anatomy which are still highly regarded today. Leonardo also was quirky enough to write notebook entries in mirror (backwards) script, a trick which kept many of his observations from being widely known until decades after his death.
  94. Liberalism
    A political philosophy originally based largely on Enlightenment principles, holding that people should be as free as possible from government restraint and that civil liveries--the basic rights of all people should be protected.
  95. Louis XVI
    The unfortunate monarch executed during the 1789 French Revolution.
  96. Magna Carta
    The “great Charter” of rights, which King John was force to sign by the English nobles Runnymeade in 1215
  97. Mandate of Heaven
    Kings that claim they got their orders directly from god himself
  98. Marshall plan
    Proposed by the secretary of state. The program as designed to rebuild the prosperity and stability of war-torn Europe. 13 billions dollars were pumped into Europe after WWII.
  99. Martin Luther
    Martin Luther changed the course of Christianity and Western history. His 1517 complaint against specific abuses in the Roman Catholic church -- a document now known as the 95 Theses -- sparked the explosive Protestant Reformation that swept Europe for the rest of the century
  100. Mercantilism
    A set of principles that dominated economic thought in the seventeenth century; it held that the prosperity of a nation depended on a large supply of gold and silver.
  101. Michelangelo
    An accomplished painter, sculptor and architect. painted on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and revealed an ideal type of human being with perfect proportions. He attempted to paint divine figures.
  102. Middle passage
    Journey from Africa to the Americas in slave ships
  103. Mikhail Gorbachev
    Mikhail Gorbachev was the leader of the Soviet Union (USSR) from 1985 until its collapse in December of 1991.
  104. Militarism
    Reliance on military strength.
  105. Mobilization
    The process of assembling troops and supplies and making them ready for war.
  106. Monroe Doctrine
    Guaranteed the independence of the new Latin American nations and warned against any European intervention in the Americas
  107. Montesquieu
    a French social commentator and political thinker who lived during the Enlightenment. He is famous for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers, taken for granted in modern discussions of government and implemented in many constitutions throughout the world. He was largely responsible for the popularization of the terms feudalism and Byzantine Empire
  108. Napoleon Bonaparte
    Napoleon is the most charismatic general in French history, famed for his military successes and (at the same time) for not quite conquering Europe
  109. Napoleonic Code
    civil code of France and basis of civil law in the early 19th century
  110. NATO
    International military alliance created todefend Western Europe against a possible Soviet invasion
  111. Neutrality Acts
    A series of acts passed in 1935, 1936, 1937, and 1939 to limit U.S. involvement in possible future wars and that was created in response to the belief that U.S. involvement in World War I resulted from loans and trade with the Allies
  112. Neville Chamberlain
    British Prime Minister known for promising peace in our time
  113. Niccolo Machiavelli
    Machiavelli has been called the brilliant creator of modern political science by some, and a cynical beast by others; he is considered the originator of the idea of a political pragmatism that says "the end justifies the means." Either way, his 1513 book The Prince is a landmark work in the history of political power
  114. Nirvana
    State of complete spiritual happiness
  115. Nuremberg laws
    Excluded Jews from German citizenship and forbade marriages between Jews and German citizens
  116. Oligarchy
    "The rule of the few," a form of government in which a small group of people exercises controls
  117. Organization of American States
    Alliance of the whole Western Hemisphere.
  118. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
    Multinational organization established in 1960 to coordinate the petroleum production and export policies of its members.
  119. Parliament
    British legislative body
  120. Perestroika
    Policy of restructuring the Soviet economy
  121. Plato
    One of the early stars of Western philosophy The son of an aristocrat, he studied under the great Greek thinker, Socrates. After years of travel and study, Plato founded the Academy in his native Athens in 387 B.C.; it became a famous hotbed of philosophical and scientific discussion, and is regarded by many as the first known
  122. Predestination
    God’s decision on who goes to heaven
  123. Proletariat
    The working class people
  124. Propaganda
    Deceptive or distorted information that is systematically spread
  125. Ramadan
    Islamic month of fasting during the day.
  126. Reasons for the U.S. entry into World War One
    • Zimmerman Note( telegram sent from Germany to Mexico urging Mexico to enter the war against the US in return for Texas, Arizona and New Mexico. This was so that Mexico could distract US from Germany)
    • Lusitania( British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-boat in May 1915 which angered the US greatly)
    • German Submarine(German submarines constantly sank ships sending supplies to US and continued to sink US ships trying to sail to battle)
  127. Reformation
    The 16th-century religious movement in Europe that set out to reform some of the doctrines and practices of the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the development of Protestantism
  128. Reincarnation
    Religion in some systems of belief, the cyclic return of a soul to live another life in a new body
  129. Renaissance
    Period in Europe between the 14th and 16th centuries when there was increased interest in ancient Greece and Rome, which produced new developments in art, literature, science, architecture, etc.
  130. Reparations
    Compensation demanded of a defeated nation by the victor in a war, especially that demanded of Germany by the Treaty of Versailles after World War I
  131. Sanction
    A restriction intended to enforce international law
  132. Schism
    The separation between the two great branches of Christianity that occurred when the Roman Pope Leo IX and the Byzantine patriarch Michael Cerularious excommunicated each other in 1054.
  133. Schlieffen plan
    Plan of action for WWII that a small part of the German army would engage Russia while the rest of the army would invade France.
  134. Seven Years’ War
    A war fought from 1756 to 1763 by Prussia, assisted by British subsidies and Hanoverian troops, against France and Austria
  135. Siddhartha Gautama
    A man who’s teachings became the basic principles of Buddhism
  136. Socialism
    A system in which society usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.
  137. Social Contract
    The concept proposed by Rousseau that an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will, and all individuals should be forced to abide by the general will since it represents what is best for the entire community.
  138. Socrates
    An ancient Greek thinker who laid the early foundations for Western philosophical thought. His Socratic Method involved asking probing questions in a give and take which would eventually lead to the truth.
  139. Sources of tension prior to World War One
    • Nationalism(pride and devotion towards one’s country, so much that they’d be willing to result to extreme measures in order to preserve it.)
    • Alliance System(triple alliance-Italy, Germany, Austria Hungary, triple entente- France, England, Russia)
    • Militarism(belief that having the biggest and best army is the way to win war and that people should be govern by the military)
    • Imperialism(the policy of extending the rule or influence of a country over other countries or colonies)
  140. Stalingrad
    Unsuccessful German assault on the Soviet city in World War II. German forces invaded the Soviet Union in 1941 and had advanced to the suburbs of Stalingrad by the summer of 1942. The battle marked the farthest extent of the German advance into the Soviet Union.
  141. Theocracy
    Government by divine authority
  142. Thirty Years’ War
    A war in Europe between 1618 and 1648, which developed into a struggle for dominance between various powers, notably France, Spain, Sweden, and the Holy Roman Empire. It began as a war between the Catholic Holy Roman Emperor and some of his Protestant German states
  143. Thomas Hobbes
    Thomas Hobbes was an English philosopher who wrote the 1651 book, Leviathan, a political treatise that described the natural life of mankind as "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short
  144. Totalitarian state
    A government that aims to control the political economic social intellectual and cultural lives of its citizens.
  145. Treaty of Versailles
    Ended the WWI between Germany and the Allied Powers and it punished Germany.
  146. Triumvirate
    Roman committee of 3 rulers
  147. Tyranny
    Oppressive government.
  148. Truman Doctrine
    U.S. gave military aid to any allies threatened by communist expansion.
  149. Vladimir Lenin
    He was a driving force behind the Russian Revolution of 1917 and became the first great dictator of the Soviet Union. Lenin had complete political control over the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) until his death, and is remembered as the man who put Marx's ideas to practical use
  150. Voltaire
    French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit and for his advocacy of civil liberties, including freedom of religion and free trade. Voltaire was a prolific writer and produced works in almost every literary form including plays, poetry, novels, essays, historical and scientific works
  151. War of attrition
    Protracted conflict in which one side attempts to wear down its enemy by continuously engaging in battle
  152. Welfare state
    A state in which the government takes responsibility for providing citizens with services such as health care.
  153. Winston Churchill
    Soldier, politician and finally prime minister, Winston Churchill was one of Britain's greatest 20th-century heroes. He is particularly remembered for his indomitable spirit while leading Great Britain to victory in World War II
  154. Woodrow Wilson
    President who led the United States through World War I. When the war ended in 1918, he pushed for the U.S. to join the League of Nations, precursor to the United Nations.
  155. Yasir Arafat
    Head of the Palestinian Liberation Organization. was among those Palestinians who resisted the creation of a Jewish state in 1948