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What is health?
State of physical, mental, spiritual, and social functioning that realizes a person's potential and experienced within a developmental context
What is wellness?
Subjective, positive state which can be increased in the wellness-illness continuum
What is disease?
Failure of a person's adaptive mechanism to counteract stimuli and stress adequately, resulting in functional or structural disturbances.
What is Illness?
A subjective experience of the individual and physcial manifestation of disease.
Can be ill without diagnosable disease
What is the clinical model of health?
- -Defined by the absences and illness by the conspicaous presence of signs and symptoms of disease.
- -Conventional model in medicine
What is the Role Performance Model?
- -Defines health in term's of an individual's ability to perform their social roles.
- -Do what you are suppose to do, if you are "ill" you cant perform the role
What is the adaptive model?
- -People's ability to adjust positively to social, mental, and physiological change is the measure of their health.
- -Illness occurs when a person fails to adapt
What is the Eudaimonistic Model?
- -Looks at good stress
- -Well-being indicates optimal health
- - Interaction between physical, social, psychological and spiritual aspects of life
- -Illness is reflected by a lack of involvement in life
- -in this model a person with Cancer can be healthy
What are the goals of Healthy People 2010/2020?
- 1. Increase quality and years of healthy life
- 2. Eliminate Health disparities
What does Healthy People look at?
- -Mortality and Morbidity rates
- -Involvement and communication
- -Has about 40 topics and objectives
- -Has leading health indicators
- Examples: physical activity, obesity, tobacco use, substance abuse, responsible sexual behavior, mental health, injury & violence, environmental quality, immunization, and access to health care.
- -Important to keep communities healthy and to spend less money
What is primary prevention?
- -Preceeds disease or dysfunction
- -Focuses on health promotion
- -Primary prevention interventions are considered health protection
What are examples are primary prevention?
- 1. A nurse providing sexuality education for middle school students
- 2. Immunizations
- 3. Any type of health education
What is secondary prevention?
- -Ranges from screening activities and treating early stages of the disease
- -Teaching has to be geared to life with disease
- -Screening is secondary because it's goal is to identify individuals in an early, detectable stage of the disease.
What is tertiary prevention?
- -When the disease/defect/disablitiy is permanent and irreversible
- -Minimizing the effects of disease and disability
What is risk?
The likelyhood you will develop something
How is risk determined?
- -Adverse Childhood events study- childhood trauma leads to certain diseases
- -Youth risk behavior surveillance- teen risk
- -Framingham Heart study- Smoking is bad
- -Harvard Nurses' Health Study- Nurses' long term use of oral contraceptives.
What is absolute risk?
- -Whether or not you will get something
- Examples: 1 out of 5 people
What is relative risk?
-Your personal risk of getting something
What is a nurse advocate?
- -Act or speak for someone else
- -Help individuals obtain what they are entitled to receieve from the healthcare system
What is a care manager?
- -Managing care, overseeing care
- -Prevent duplication of services and try to reduce costs
What is a nurse consultant?
- -Expect in the field
- -provide knowledge about health promotion and disease prevention in speciality areas
What is a deliverer of services?
- -Care role
- -Delivery of direct services such as healht education, flu shots and health promotion
What is a nurse educator?
- -Teach about health education
- -The goal is to change behavior
What is a Nurse Healer?
- -Help individuals integrate and balance the various parts of their lives
- -Holistic Nursing
What is a Nurse Reasearch?
-Uses EBP, Research to make the best decision for health care
What is primary care?
-Basic health care that emphasizes general health needs rather than specialized care
What is a PCP?
- -Primary Care Provider
- -Physician or APN who provides basic and routine health care service usually in an office or clinic
What is managed care?
A health care plan that integrates the financing and delivery of health care services by using arrangements with selected health care providers to provide services for covered individuals.
What is an HMO?
- -Health Maintenance Organization
- -A prepaid health plan delivering comprehensive care to members through designated providers, having a fixed monthly payment for health care services and requiring memebers to be in a plan for a specified period of time
What is an official health care agency?
- -Tax supported
- -Deals with local, state, and federal level
What is a voluntary Agency?
- -Raise awareness
- -No supported by taxes
- Example: American Heart Association
Is most of the health care system preventive care?
No, the focus is not preventive care
What are the different types of health insurance?
- -Tax supported
- Medicare- over 65
- Medicaid- 18-65
- SCHIP-Children under 18
- -Universal coverage- government or private, covers whole nation-Germany, Canada
- -uninsured- US has highest proportion of people with no health insurance of all developed countries
What are current trends in health promotion?
- -Demographics- by 2050 most people in US will not be white
- -There is an increase in ethnic/cultural diversity, this means a change in care given
- -Effects of lifestyle on health- Americans have a poor lifestyle
- -Personal responsibility for health
- -Access to health care