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The energy for all living things comes from..
An organism that makes its own food is called an..
An organism that eats food to get energy is called a..
The process by which plants, and other autotrophs, convert energy from the sun into carbohydrates (sugars and straches)
Equation for photosynthesis
- 6CO2 + 6H2O >(light & chlorophyll)> C6H12O6 + 6O2Carbon Dioxide + Water yeilds(light & chlorophyll) Sugar + Oxygen
photosynthesis occurs in the..
......... is the openings of the lower leaf surface where carbon dioxide is turned into oxygen
The opening in the stomata are surrounded by..
The inner membrane in the chloroplast is called the..
A stack of thylakoids are called..
The liquid surrounding the thylakoids
Light is energy, measured in wavelengths. As the space bwtween wavelengths decrease, the amount of energy..
Plants would die if you only gave them green light because..
Plants reflect green light, they don't absorb it
chemical compounds which reflect certain wavelengths
Photosynthesis occurs in two main phases
- 1. light reactions
- 2. dark reactions (light independent reactions)
- -occur in thylakoid membrane
- -light and water are required
- -4 protien complexes = photosystem I & II, cytochrome b6, and ATP synthase
- -energy storage molecules are formed (ATP and NADPH)
- -oxygen is a waste product
Process of light reactions
- 1. light strikes chlorophyll exciting electrons
- 2. electrons are transferred between photosystem I (generates NADPH) & II (generates ATP)
- 3. Water is split in the process creating oxygen
Light independent reactions
- -occur in stroma
- -carbon dioxide is made into the sugar glucose
- -ATP and NADPH power the production of glucose
Factors effecting photosynthesis
- -amount of water
- -amount of carbon dioxide
- -light intesnisty/wavelength (color)
the amount of energy needed to raise the temp. of 1 gram of water 1oC
Define kilocalorie (Calorie)
- measurment found in food labels
- -1 Cal = 1000 cal
the addition of a phosphate to ATP mamking ADP
What is NAD+?
- - electron carrier, hydrogen acceptor
- -carries energy from the bonds in glucose to the next step
site of cellualar respiration
- -fluid filled space
- -where reactions occur
-extensive folds in the inner membrane
Define cellular respiration
process that releases energy by braking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen
Chemical equation for cellular respiration
- C6H12O6 + 6O2 >> 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy
- glucose + oxygen yields carbon dioxide + water + energy
3 stages of cellular respiration
- 1. glycolysis (no oxygen)
- 2. Kreb's cycle (citric acid cycle)
- 3. electron transport chain
process by which one molecule of glucose is split in half producing 2 molecules of pyruvic acid
- -takes place in cytoplasm
- -requires energy
- -end products = 2 pyruvic acids, 4 ATP (net gain of 2), 2 NADH
pyruvic acid has ... carbon molecules
Anaerobic respiration is aka..
- -allows Kreb's cycle to work
- -alternate pathway
- -does not require oxygen
- -2 types = alcohol fermentaion and lactic acid fermentaion
releases energy from food molecules by producing ATP in the absence of oxygen
- -can't be proformed by animals
- -pyruvic acid + NADH >> alcohol +CO2 + NAD+
Lactic acid fermentaion
-pyruvic acid + NADH >> lactic acid + NAD+
- -pyruvic acid is broken down into CO2 in energy extracting reactions
- -energy produced from = ATP, NADPH, and FADH2(electron carrier)
- -end products = 2 ATP, CO2, 8 NADH, 2 FADH2
Electron transport chain
- -sieres of proteins on the inner membrane of the mitochondrion
- -uses high energy electrons from the Krebs cycle to convert ADP to ATP
- -electron is passed from one protein to the next
- -at the end H+ ions combine with oxygen to form H20
Aerobic respiration vs anaerobic respiration
Aerobic-3 pathways(slow), yeild 36 ATP molecules, usesd fro long term energy
Anaerobic-1 pathway(fast), yeilds 2 ATP molecules, used fro quick kburst of energy
one single cells
Groups of cells that work together
a change in form
process by which organisms break down of build up materials
Major metabolic processes
photosynthesis and cellular respiration
- -means unable to be cut
- -smallest piece of an element
- -have 3 sub atomic particals = proton(+), electron(-), and nuetron(no charge)
- -protons and nutrons are held together by a strong force
A pure substance made of only one type of atom
Define atomic number
number of protons in an atom of that element
Define mass number
Equal to the number of protons + nuetrons
- When some atoms of the same element contain a different number of nuetrons
- -isotops are named by their mass numbers
Subtract the atomic number from the mass number to get..
amount of electrons
Radioactive isotopes have
- and unstable nucleus that decays at a constant rate over time
- -the isotopes mass number and atomic number are switched
Interactions of elements
- -most substances do not exist as a single element, they form compunds as they mix
- -only 90 elements are naturally occuring
- smallest unit of a comound that retains the element of the compound
- -properties are different then their component element
Chemical formulas show..
the ratios of different types of elements
Bonds form when atoms..
share or exchange electrons on the outer most element
Ionic bonds form when
1 or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another by their atraction to make them more stable
Ions are atoms that are formed by..
- gaining or losing an electron
- -positive if they lose electrons
- -negative if they gain electrons
Covalent bonds form molecules when..
- the outter electrons are shared between atoms
- -usually occur between two non-metalic elements
Van der Waals forces are..
- -a type of week intermolecule force(not a bond) that can hold molecules together
- -forms because electrons are not shared equally
A water molecule is polar because its hydrogen end has a...
Slight positive charge
Describe hydrogen bonds
- -not real bonds but a strong Van de Waal forces
- -the slight positive and negative charges attract surrounding molecules
- -gives water special properties
an attraction of molecules of the same substance
the attraction between molecules of a different substance
A mixture is a material composed of..
- two or more elements or compounds that are mixed together
- -not chemically combined
Suspensions contain tiny pices of matter that..
may not disolve but remain small
Hydrolysis reaction is when you..
- add water to split something
- -opposite of condenstaion reaction
- -a large molecule made up of repeating subunits
- -formed through condenstaion reactions
- a huge molecule with many diverse funstions
- -contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
- -polymer structure
Functions of protiens
- -oxygen transport
- -immune reactions
All enzymes are protiens but..
all protiens are not enzymes
Protiens primary structure
- -sequence of amino acids (20 kinds)
- -held together by peptide bonds which are formed by taking away water
Proteins secondary structure
- -amino acid sequence coils to form a helix
- -helix held together by hydrogen bonds
Protiens tertiary structure
- -3D shape (gobular structure)
- -helix folds on its self
then theres a Quadrinary structure
- -alters tertiary structure by braking hydrogen structures
- -destroys enzyme function
Energy pyramids show..
the amount of energy at each trophic level of a food web
Why are there only 5 trophic levels?
Because the enegry transfer between each tropic level in inefficent and cant typically support organisms higher in the tropic levels
total amount of living tissue in each trophic level
Describe inorganic matter
- -not living
- -does not include carbon
- -example: rocks and minerals
Describe organic matter
- -carbon based
- -includes decomposed organisms and organisms waste products
What are physical factors?
- -other factors that influence organisms
- -example: temp., amount of sun, rainfall, etc.
What is chemosynthesis?
- -bacteria produce ATP from iniorganic substances
- -plants use when there is no sun
- -example: plants at the bottom of the ocean
- -plant eating organisms
- -primary consumers
- -eat other animals
- -secondary consumers
-eat both plant and animal matter
-feed on plant and animal remains
What are decomposers?
- -heterotrophs which break down organic matter
- -make essential nutrience available
- -example: bacteria and fungi
What are the Laws oof Thermodynamics?
- -matter can not be created or destroyed
- -matter can be transformed from one form to another
Define food web
A series of inter-related foor chains
Describe the water cycle
- -gaseous cycle
- -resevoir: atmosphere
- -processes: physical processes, change in state
- -evaporation: return
- -precipitation: release
- -condensation: release
- -transpiration: return (evaporation from plants)
- -perspiration: return (evaporation from animals)
Describe the carbon cycle
- -gaseous cycle
- -resevoir: atmosphere
- -processes: chemical
- -photosynthesis: capture (CO2 >> C6H12O6)
- -respiration: return (C6H12O6 >> CO2)
- -decomposition: return (fats, proteins, carbs >> CO2)
- -combustion: return (C + O2 >> CO2)
Describe the nitrogen cycle
- -gaseous cycle
- -reservoir: atmosphere
- -processes: chemical
- -nitrogen fixation*: capture
- -nitrification*: convert to useable form
- -assimilation: conversion to build molecules for oranisms
- -decomposition*: conversion
- -denitrification*: return
- * = processes use bacteria
a plant that has nitrogen-fixing bacteria on its roots, increasing the soils nitrogen content
Describe the phospherous cycle
- -sedimentary cycle
- -reservoir: soil, rocks, sediments
- -processes: physical and chemical
- -decomposition: release phosphate from organic molecules to soil, chemical process
- -weathering & erosion: release phosphate through the wearing away of rocks, physical process
- -uplifting: expose phosphates through geological action or mix bottom sedimenets by currents, physical processes
What time of plants are legumes?
Peas, beans, peanuts and clovers
What determinds the type of cycle?
The location of the resevoir
Define biotic potential
Innate ability to reproduce under ideal condtions
Define limiting factors
Anything which inhibits the growth of an organisms
Define enviornmental resistance
Sum total of limiting factors
Define carrying capacity
Maximum number of individuals that can be supported by a given habitat
What is the competion exclusion principle?
- No two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time
- -one species will always ise the resources more efficiently
- -that species will repoduce more
- -advantage leads to elimintaion of the weaker competion
The long-term relationship between two organisms in and ecosystem
Equal concentration, no net movement
Animal cell shrinks
Plant vacuole shrinks
Animal swells to burst
Vacuole fills to capacity
What are the 3 passive movement processes?
- -facilitated diffusion
Describe facilitated diffusion
- -movement from high to low concentration
- -used to move simple sugars and amino acids
- -move along the concentration gradient
- -passive process
Describe active transport processes
- -move against concentration gradient
- -requires energy
- -3 types = protein pumps, endocytosis, exocytosis
Describe protein pumps
- -requires protein carriers
- -against concentration gradient
- -used to conserve and move ions
- -used to bring larger substances into cell
- -forms vesicle(bubble) from cell mambrane
- -2 types = phagocytosis(cell eating) and pinocytosis(cell drinking)
- -used to release large molecules
- -requires energy