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What is Dramatic Irony?
the audience knows what will happen, but the characters do not.
What is Foreshadowing?
the reader is warned about events to come by certain details - you see a shadow of what to come.
What is Irony of the Situation?
the one thing you don't want or expect to happen does happen; a funny or added twist of events.
What is Setting?
the time and place of the story.
What is Style?
the form of writing.
What is Verbal Irony?
one thing is said but another is meant.
What is Turnabout?
a surprise ending.
What is Theme?
the main point of the story.
What is Tone?
reveals the narrators attitude towards the subject and the characters in the story.
What does the S in SPECULATE stand for?
Write a story using no less than five paragraphs.
What does the P in SPECULATE stand for?
Give each person a personality.
What does the E in SPECULATE stand for?
Exposition, complication/crisis, climax, resolution.
What does the C in SPECULATE stand for?
Choose correct tense, subject/verb agreement, number agreement, capitalization and punctuation.
What does the U in SPECULATE stand for?
What does the L in SPECULATE stand for?
Label each person by giving them a name.
What does the A in SPECULATE stand for?
Apply characteristics of story-telling (dialogue, details, events, vivid language action, five senses, and character development).
What does the T in SPECULATE stand for?
Tell event in chronological order.
What does the E in SPECULATE stand for?
End by typing up all loose ends and presenting a strong resolution.
What is a sentence?
a word group that contains a subject and a verb that expresses a complete thought.
Ex: Scott Joplin was a well-known ragtime pianist.
What is a sentence fragment?
is a word group that looks like a sentence but does not contain both a subject and a verb and does not express a complete thought.
Ex: was a well-known ragtime pianist.
What is a declarative sentence?
makes a statement and punctuates with a period.
What is an imperative sentence?
gives a command or makes a request and punctuates with a period or exclamation point.
What is an interrogative sentence?
asks a question and is punctuated with a question mark.
What is an exclamatory sentence?
shows excitement and is punctuated with an exclamation point.
What is a compound sentence?
a sentence that contains two or more independent clauses and no subordinate clauses.
Ex: According to legend, Betsey Ross made our first flag, but little evidence supports this.
What is a complex sentence? What technique should you use to help identify/construct one?
a sentence that contains one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause.
Ex: When I watch Martha Graham's performances, I feel like studying dance.
What is a noun?
names persons, places, things, or ideas.
Ex: Sue and I write down names of CDs we want from the mall.
What is a pronoun?
takes the place of nouns.
Ex: This yearbook is theirs, but I'm sure they will share with us if we ask them.
What is a transitive verb?
takes objects and carries the action of a subject and apply into an object. They tell what the subject does to something else - always has a direct object.
Ex: He bought a shirt.
What is an intransitive verb?
cannot take a direct object.
Ex: The plant has thrived on the south windowsill.
What is an adjective?
is a word that modifies a noun or a pronoun.
Ex: These mangoes.
What is an adverb?
is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb.
Ex: They said that the forest fire started here.
What is a conjunction?
is a word used to join words or groups of words.
FANBOYS - for, and, nor but, or, yet, so.
What is a preposition?
is a word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun, called the object of the preposition, to another word - usually tells where.
What is an interjection?
is a word used to express emotion.
What is a direct object?
is a noun, pronoun, or word group that tells who or what receives the action of the verb.
- Ex: The picnic basket held sandwiches.
- (Ask who or what the basket held.)
What is an indirect object?
is a noun, pronoun, or word group that sometimes appears in sentences.
- Ex: The mailman delivered me my mail.
- (Ask whom? Or for whom?)
What is the present verb tense form?
takes place now.
Ex: I shop at Macy's.
What is the past verb tense form?
occurred in the past.
Ex: I shopped at Macy's yesterday.
What is the future verb tense form?
will happen in the future.
Ex: I will shop at Macy's tomorrow with my friends.
What is the present perfect verb tense form?
occurred in the past and is still happening.
Ex: I have shopped at Macy's many times before.
What is the past perfect verb tense form?
occurred before another past action - two actions happen in the past, one before another.
Ex: I had shopped at Macy's after I came home from dance class.
What is the future perfect verb tense form?
will be finished before a stated time in the future.
Ex: I will have shopped at Macy's before my dance class, which starts at 5:00PM.
What is the active voice?
the verb is in the active voice when the subject of the sentence performs the action - the action is done by its subject.
Ex: The girl hits the ball.
What is the passive voice?
the verb is in the passive voice when the subject is acted upon - used any part of the verb to be.
Ex: The ball was hit by the girl.
Punctuate this piece of dialogue:
Yes! said Johnny I got a 95% on my math test!
Wow! That test was really hard said Mary.
"Yes!" said Johnny, "I got a 95% on my math test!"
"Wow! That test was really hard," said Mary.
What is varied sentence structure?
using sentences of different lengths and forms - compound, complex, simple, and compound-complex.
What are transitions?
phrases or words that connect one idea to the next.
What are internal transitions?
words that act like signals or signposts to indicate to the reader the order and flow of the inside of a paragraph - first, next, the final, as a result, etc.
What are supporting facts, examples, and details?
persuade the reader to agree with the write by using statistics, direct quotes, testimonials, surveys, and comments.
What is the format of the opening (introduction) paragraph of a persuasive essay?
- -background information
- -thesis statement
- -reasons 1, 2, and 3
- -restate thesis in different words
What is the format of the middle three paragraphs of a persuasive essay?
- -open with a transition
- -reason 1, 2, or 3
- -supporting facts, examples, and details
What is the format of the conclusion paragraph of a persuasive essay?
- -open with a transition
- -restate thesis
- -restate reasons 1, 2, and 3
- -call to action
- -add a closing statement to tie up all loose ends
- -end on a positive note