Leading cause of death at the beginning of the 1900s
Lung infection (pneumonia)
Leading causes of death in 2000
Obesity rate in Mexico
Top 4 countries in rates of obesity
2. United States
3. New Zealand
Obesity rate in US
Factors that may cause early onset of puberty
2. Hormones in Food
3. Chemicals in food packaging
Describe two ways in which epidemiology may be considered a liberal arts discipline
1. Use of interdisciplinary approach
2. Use of the scientific method
State three important landmarks in the history of epidemiology
1. Pandemic Influenza (Spanish Flu) 1918
2. The connection of cholera outbreaks with water sources by John Snow.
3. Eradication of smallpox.
A type of epidemiology that examines causal hypotheses regarding the association between exposures and health conditions.
Epidemiologic studies that are ocncerned with characterizing the amount and distribution of health and disease within a population.
A factor or event that is capable of bringing about a change in the health status of a population. i.e. microbe.
The occurrence of diseases and other health outcomes varies in populations, with some subgroups of the population more frequently affected than others.
Occurrence of a disease clearly in excess of normal expectancy.
A shift in the pattern of moribidity and mortality from causes related primarily to infectious and communicable diseases to causes associated with chronic, degenerative disease.
Concerned with the distribution and determintants of health and disease, morbidity, injuries, disability, and mortality in populations.
Contact with a disease-causing factor; the amount of the factor that impinges upon a group or individuals.
An Enligish anestisiologist who innovated epidemiologic methods to identify the source of a cholera outbreak.
Occurrence of an illness or illnesses in a population.
Occurrence of a death in a population.
A type of research design in which the experimenter does not control the manipulation of a study factor. The manipulation of the study factor is a result of natural phenomena or policies that impact heath.
A science that capitalizes on naturally occurring situations in order to study the occurrecne of disease.
A result that may arise form an exposure.
An epidemic that spans a wide geographic area, and crosses international borders.
All the inhabitants of a given country or area considered together.
3 types of prevention of disease
Primary- Prevention of the disease before it occurs.
Secondary- Activities that limit the progression of disease
Tertiary- Restoring optimal functioning in a patient
The probability that an event will occur; that an individual will become ill or die within a stated period of time or by a certain age.
Methodology to provide quantitative measurements of risks to health.
An exposure that is associated with a disease, morbidity, mortality, or adverse health outcome.
Uses of Epidemiology
Historical- Study the history and health of populations
Community health- diagnose the health of the community
Health Services- study the working of health services
Risk assessment- Estimate individuals' risks of disease, accident or defect.
Disease causality- Search for the causes of health and disease
Greek authority departed from superstitous reasons for disease outbreak
Wrote: On Airs, Waters, and Places
Suggested disease might be associated with environmental factors
Claimed 1/3 of the population of Europe (20-30 million)
Caused by Y. pestis infection from flea bites
Swollen lymph nodes, fever, necrosis of skin
One of the founders of toxicology
notion of target organ specificity of chemicals
published: 1. Natural and Political Observations Mentioned in a Following Index
2. Made Upon the Bills of Mortality
First to employ quantitative methods
Known as the Columbus of statistics
Founder of the field of occupational medicine
Authored De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (Disease of Workers)
First person to describe environmental cause of cancer
Observed that chimney sweeps had a high incedence of scrotal cancer
Developed a method for smallpox vaccination in 1796
Believed cholera was transmitted by contaminated water and was able to demonstrate this association
Developed a more sophisticated system for codifying medical conditions
Examined possible link between mortality rates and population density
Dmonstrated the association between a microorgansim and disease
First cheif epidemiologist for the CDC
1.The organism must be observed in every case of the disease
2. It must be isolated and grown in pure culture
3. The pure culture must, when inoculated into a susceptible animal, reproduce the disease
4. The organism must be observed in, and recovered from, the experimental animal
Discovered penicillin in 1928
Penicillin is derived from the mold Penicillium notatum
It was available by the end of WWII
A shift from high birth and death rates in agrarian societies to much lower birth and death rates in developed countries.