Anatomy Ch 18 Endocrine

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cswett
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Anatomy Ch 18 Endocrine
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2011-01-28 20:38:24
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Endocrine System Anatomy
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Study worksheet for A & P II Chapter 18 - Endocrinology
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  1. What are the differences between the endocrine and nervous system?
    • Endocrine:
    • 1. Hormones: chemical messeners that enter the blood stream to get to target tissue
    • 2. Distance: far from site of release - binds to receptors on target cells
    • 3. Target cells: many cells throughout body
    • 4. Time: slower
    • 5. Duration: longer

    • Nervous
    • 1. Neurotransmitters - nerve fibers (action potential) causes neurotransmitters to be released
    • 2. Distance: close - binds to receptors in postsynaptic cleft
    • 3. Cells: Muscle, gland, and other neurons
    • 4. Time: quick
    • 5. Duration: Brief
  2. Definition of
    hormone
    endocrine system
    • Hormone - (to excite or get moving) chemical messengers
    • -made my endocrine glands or organs
    • -enters interstitial fluid around cell
    • -enters blood and it trans ported to target organ
    • -acts upon target organ

    • Endocrine system - all the endocrine glands and cells in the body
    • glands:
    • -pituitary
    • -thyroid
    • -parathyroid
    • -adrenal
    • -pineal

    • Structures that have endocrine cells:
    • -hypothalamus
    • -thymus
    • -pancreas
    • -ovaries
    • -testes
    • -kidneys
    • -stomach
    • -liver
    • -small intestine
    • -skin
    • -heart
    • -adipose tissue
    • -placenta
  3. What is a hormone receptor? What class of molecule it is? Where are they found?
    • Hormone receptors - receptors on target cell that are specific to only one hormone.
    • -made of either protein or glycoprotein
    • -found on the cell membrane OR in the cytoplasm of the cell
  4. What is the difference between "down regulation" and "up regulation"? Why do they occur in man?
    Hormone regulation - target cells have 2,000 to 10,000 receptors for particular hormone - can change based on relative concentration of circulating hormone over time

    Down regulation - if hormone present in excess - number of receptors on target cell can decrease - make target cell less sensitive to hormone

    Up regulation - if hormone deficit then more receptors are added - cell is more sensitive to hormone
  5. Local Hormone
    Circulating Hormone
    Circulating Hormone - enters the blood stream to get to target cell - most endocrine hormones are circulating

    • Local Hormone - act on neighboring cells or cell that produced them (2 types)
    • 1. Paracrine - neighboring
    • 2. Autocrine - cell that secreted it
  6. Do all hormones act by entering the blood stream?
    Paracrine
    Autocrine
    No - local hormones stay in the interstitial fluid

    Paracrine - local hormones that act on neighboring cells

    Autocrine - local hormones that act on cell that secreted it
  7. When a hormone is secreted by an endocrine cell does it go directly into the blood? Where does a local hormone go?
    Both circulating and local hormones are released into the interstitial fluid surrounding the cell. From there the circulating hormone diffuse into blood capillaries. Local hormones don't leave the interstitial fluid - they act on the local cells
  8. What is the difference between a lipid-soluble hormone and a water-soluble hormone?
    Which needs a transport protein? Why?
    • Hormones divided into two major classes:
    • Lipid-soluble hormones are hydophobic - they are friendly with lipids and are able to diffuse through the plasma membrane of the target cell - receptors are in the cytosol or nucleus

    Water-soluble hormones are hydrophillic - don't play well with lipids and are not able to enter the target cell - receptors are in the plasma membrane of target cell

    Lipid- soluble hormones (being hydrophobic) are not able to circulate in the watery blood plasma so they need to be attached to a transport protein - makes them temporarily water soluble
  9. Lipid-soluble hormones
    Water-soluble hormones
    • Lipid-soluble hormones:
    • 1. Steroid hormones - derived from cholesterol - unique R group attached to four ring structure
    • 2. Thyroid hormones - T3 and T4 -(T4 = thyroxine)
    • --iodine attached to tyrosine (lipid soluble amino acid)
    • 3. Nitric Oxide (NO) -gas - both a hormone and a neurotransmitter

    • Water-soluble hormones
    • 1. Amine hormsone - amino acid with COOH removed - retain amio group -NH3+
    • **Catecholamines - EPI, NOR, DOPA synthesized from modified a.a tyrosine

    • 2. Peptide Hormone (3-49 a.a.) &
    • Protein Hormones (50-200 a.a)
    • -ADH, GH, insulin, oxytosin
    • -if attached to carb = glycoprotein hormone (LH, FSH)

    • 3. Eicosanoid - derived from arachidonic acid (20 carbon fatty acid)
    • -PGs and leukotrienes
  10. What are most steroid hormones derived from?
    Where else is this substance used/ found?
    Most steroid hormones are derived from cholesterol

    • Cholesterol is a lipid that is only found in animal tissue
    • -found in the lipid bilayer of plasma membranes
  11. What is an eicosanoid? is it a local hormone?
    Eicosanoid - water-soluble hormone - mostly local but can be circulating as well

    • -PGs - prostaglandins
    • -leukotrienes
  12. 3 catecholamines & actions
    Which endocrine gland makes them? where is it?
    • Catecholamines - Amines - water- soluble
    • Made by the adrenal medulla - adrenal glands - above the kidneys
    • 1. NOR
    • 2. EPI
    • 3. DOPA

    • EPI & NOR are SNS "fight or flight" hormones -
    • ↑ HR, ↑ cardiac output → ↑ BP
    • ↑ glycogen breakdown : make ATP
    • ↑ lipid breakdown: make ATP
    • broncodialation, pupil dialation
  13. Where are transport proteins made?
    What is the free fraction of a lipid soluble hormone?
    Why is it important?
    What are the 3 major functions of a transport protein?
    Transport proteins are made in the liver - they transport lipid-soluble hormones in the blood and release them at the target site

    • Free Fraction - the amount of hormone that is not bound to a transport protein (the amount that is "free") in the bloodstream
    • -the free fraction of a hormone is what causes the effect (can't bind to receptor while transporter protein is attached)

    3 major functions:

    1. make lipid-soluble hormones water soluble

    2. Keeps the hormones from being filtered in the kidney (into urine) by increasing their size

    3. stores hormones in the bloodstream - ready when needed
  14. 4 ways hormones work:
    1. Turn protein synthesis on or off

    2. alter permeability of the cell membrane (control what can get in)

    3. Alter the rate of chemical reactions

    4. can have multiple effects at one time
  15. How do lipid-soluble hormones work?
    • 1. able to diffuse through the lipid bilayer
    • 2. binds to hormone receptors in the nucleus (nuclear receptors)
    • 3. alter gene expression - turns specific genes on or off
    • - - ON - make mRNA → protein synthesized
    • - - OFF - no mRNA made
    • 4. mRNA leaves the nucleus, interacts with ribosome to synthesize protein → new protein act on cell's activity (causes the response initiated by the hormone)
  16. How does a water-soluble hormone work?
    • 1. hormone binds to receptor on cell membrane -FIRST MESSENGER
    • 2. first messenger activates SECOND MESSENGER - cAMP (cyclic Adenosine MonoPhosphate)
    • 3. second messenger activates (+) or inactivates (-) specific enzymes
    • 4. actions occurs - inhibitory or stimulatory

    • cascade effect: minute levels of hormone can cause big effects
    • 1 first messenger (hormone bound to receptor) → 1000 second messengers synthesized
  17. What is glycogen?
    What does a glycogen molecule look like?
    What does insulin do to glycogen?
    What does glucagon and EPI do to glycogen? Why?
    • Glycogen is a polysaccharide - body stores glucose in the form of glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscles
    • Glycogen is made of glucose monomer linked to one another in branching chains.
    • Insulin (anabolic) speeds the conversion of glucose into glycogen.

    Glucagon and EPI (catabolic) accelerate the conversion of glycogen into glucose.
  18. Permissive Effect
    Antagonistic and synergistic hormones
    • Permissive Effect - a second hormone permits the primary hormone to have full effect - the second hormone is necessary for full effect and is called the permissive hormone
    • - works by ↑ # of receptors for primary hormone to bind to
    • -or by increasing synthesis of enzyme that primary hormone needs to have an effect

    Synergistic Interactions - two different hormones interact - produces a great effect than either alone

    Antagonistic Interaction - effects of 2 different hormones - less effective than either one alone
  19. Give an example of how the permissive effect works.
    prolactin is a hormone that stimulates milk production

    • in the presence of insulin, TH, and HGH there is increased milk production -
    • -insulin, TH, and HGH are the permissive hormones here
  20. Describe control of hormone secretion of the endocrine gland
    What is the trigger for insulin release? Explain how this works. What organ detects the hyperglycemia?
    -Hormone secretion from an endocrine gland requires a stimulus to occur -a trigger -

    -secretion occurs in short bursts - regulation of secretion prevents overproduction or underproduction of any given hormone - most work through negative feedback systems.

    • -the stimulus can be:
    • -1. another hormone
    • -2. signals from nervous system
    • -3. chemical changes in the blood

    The trigger for insulin release is a rise in the blood glucose level (hyperglycemia). The hyperglycemia is detected by the pancreas which stimulates the beta cells to secrete insulin.

    -
  21. Positive feedback system
    • can be used to regulate hormone secretion but is rare
    • - system in which the activity of a hormone produces a response that stimulates the release of more of that hormone
    • - an example of this is oxytosin which is secreted by the hypothalamus and stored and secreted by the posterior pituitary.
    • -Oxytocin stimulates contraction s of the smooth muscles of the uterus.
    • - The contraction of the uterus stimulated the posterior pituitary to secrete more onytosin
  22. Tropic Hormone
    Why is ACTH a tropic hormone?
    What does the suffix "tropin" mean?
    Why are LH and FSH called gonadotropins?
    Tropic hormone - hormone that stimulates another endocrine gland to release it's hormone

    ACTH - adrencorticotropic hormone - secreted by the anterior pituitary → travels to adrenal gland → cortisol released by adrenal gland

    • -Tropin is a suffix on some tropic hormones
    • gonadotropins stimulate release of hormones in the gonads :
    • LH - lutinizing hormone → progesterone release
    • FSH - Follicle stimulating hormone → estrogen release
  23. How is the hypothalamus the integrating link between the nervous and endocrine systems?
    The hypothalamus receives input from the limbic, cortex, thalamus, RAS and sensory - integrates CNS and endocrine systems

    Part of the dienchepalon

    • Functions
    • 1. Endocrine - releasing (+) and inhibiting (-) factors
    • 2. ANS regulation
    • 3. Thrist/ Hunger regulation
    • 4. Temp regulation
    • 5. Circadian rhythms
  24. What hormones does the hypothalamus release?
    Hypothalamus releases to the anterior pituitary:

    • RH (+) - releasing hormones
    • IH (-) - inhibiting hormones

    They act on the pituitary gland and cause it to release or inhibit the release of hormones (they are tropic hormones)
  25. What hypothalamic hormones travel and act in the anterior pituitary? The posterior pituitary? Do releasing or inhibiting hormones act on the posterior pituitary?
    Hormones secreted by the hypothalamus that act on the pituitary gland:

    • GHRH, GHIH - growth hormone
    • TRH - Thyrotropin RH
    • CRH- Corticotropin RH
    • GnRH - Gonadotropin RH
    • PRH, PIH - Prolactin

    • synthesizes and sends to posterior pituitary for storage and release:
    • 1. ADH - antidiuretic hormone
    • 2. oxytosin

    RH and IH do not act on the posterior pituitary - ADH and oxytosin are synthesized in the hypothalamus and travel to the posterior pituitary via the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract
  26. Name/ List the releasing/ inhibiting hormones and their target organs.
    • GHRH, GHIH - Anterior Pituitary
    • TRH - Anterior Pituitary
    • GnRH - Anterior Pituitary
    • CRH - Anterior Pituitary
    • PRH, PIH - Anterior Pituitary
  27. What does ADH do @ the kidney?
    What is the trigger for its release?
    What organ makes ADH?
    What structure releases ADH?
    • ADH = Antidiuritic Hormone
    • ADH increases H2O resorption in the kidneys (concentrated urine)
    • ADH is made by the hypothalamus but stored and released by the posterior pituitary
    • Trigger for release:
    • 1. blood electrolyte concentration
    • 2. blood volume
    • 3. BP
    • ADH is inhibited by alcohol
  28. What does oxytocin do?
    What triggers its release?
    What are its 2 target organs?
    What stops its release?
    • -Oxytocin increases frequency and strength of uterine contractions and promotes the letdown reflex in the breasts
    • -Release is triggered by the stretching of the cervix and from sucking at the breast
    • -Target organs are uterus and breasts
    • - Controlled by positive feedback system - stops when the cervical stretching stops
  29. Where is the pituitary gland located? in what bone?
    What is the infundibulum?
    What type of tissue makes up the anterior and posterior pituitary?
    The pituitary (also known as the hypophysis) is called the master gland

    -located in the hypophyseal fossa of the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone

    -the infundibulum (means funnel) is the stalk that connects the pituitary to the hypothalamus

    -the anterior pituitary (adeno hypophysis) is the glandular tissue portion (made of epithelial tissue) - secretes 6 hormones

    - the posterior pituitary (neuro hypophysis) is made of nervous tissue - the neurosecretory cells make ADH and oxytocin
  30. What is the hypophyseal portal system?
    What does it connect?
    Why is it important?
    • The hypophyseal portal system is a specialized blood supply that is a direct vascular connection between the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary that prevents dilution of the hormones.
    • hypothalamic capillaries → hypophyseal portal vein → pituitary capillaries → pituitary cell
  31. How many different hormones does the anterior pituitary make?
    List them, their target organ, and actions
    List posterior pituitary hormones, organs, and actions
    Anterior Pituitary make 6 hormones - output is controlled by the hypothalamus R and I hormones that reach the pituitary via the hypothalamic portal system

    1. GH Grown Hormone (hGH) → liver = IGF (Insulin-like Growth Factor) → cell growth and division (IGF is necessary for cell growth (hypertrophy) and cell reproduction (hyperplasia) in kids - cell maint & repair in adults)

    • 2. TSH - Thyroid stimulating → thyroid = ↑ T3 & T4
    • 3. FSH - Follicle stimulation → ovaries/ testes = (M) sperm production / (F) egg maturation & estrogen secretion

    4. LH - luteinizing hormone → ovaries/ testes = (M) testosterone (F) ovulation & corpus luteum (progesterone production)

    5. Prolactin → breasts = milk production

    6. ACTH -AdrenoCorticoTropic hormone → Adrenal gland = cortisol (also small amts of aldosterone & androgens)

    • Posterior Pituitary:
    • 1. ADH - Antidiuretic Hormone → kidneys = resorption of H2O (concentrated urine) & Vasoconstriction

    2. Oxytocin → uterus & breasts = + uterine contractions & letdown reflex
  32. What is the relationship between GH and IGF?
    How is IGF like insulin? Is it anabolic?
    How is IGF not like insulin?
    What does it do to glucose levels in the blood?
    GH (secreted by the Anterior Pituitary) in the blood causes secretion of IGF by the Liver (also bone, muscle, and cartilage cells)

    IGF is like insulin in that it promote a.a. uptake by the cells and protein production in the cells. IGF is both anabolic and catabolic.

    IGF is not like insulin in that it promotes glycogen breakdown in the liver (catabolic) -causes more glucose to enter the blood. IGF also promote lipolysis for ATP production.

    IGF is opposite insulin - it causes blood glucose levels to increase because it inhibits glucose uptake by cell and it promotes glycogen breakdown in the liver which releases more glucose into the blood stream.
  33. What causes the release of GH?
    GH is released from somatotrophs in the anterior pituitary when GHRH is synthesized and released from the hypothalamus. GHRH is released when the blood glucose level is low, also when there are lots of a.as in the blood, or when there are low fatty acids in the blood.
  34. What 3 hormones are necessary for growth?
    • 1. GH
    • 2. Insulin
    • 3. Thyroid Hormone
  35. What's the difference between acromegaly and giantism?
    Acromegaly and giantism are both caused by increased GH levels. Acromegaly occurs when the elevated GH occurs during adulthood. Giantism is caused by elevated GH during childhood.
  36. What cell secrets TSH?
    What gland is this cell located in? Where?
    TSH is secreted by Thyrotrophs in the anterior pituitiary. Secretion is controlled by the hypothalamus (TRH) and is triggers when T3 and T4 levels are low
  37. What does TSH do? Is it regulated through positive or negative feedback?
    TSH - Thyroid Stimulating Hormone - secreted by the anterior pituitary → act on the thyroid gland

    • -Regulates T3 and T4 output from thyroid
    • -Regulated by negative feedback via thyroid hormone blood levels
  38. What are "gonads"?
    Where are the gonadotropins made?
    What do they do in males?
    In females?
    Gonads are reproductive organs.

    Gonadotropins are secreted by the Gonadotrophs in the anterior pituitary. Release is triggered by GnRH from the hypothalamus.

    • FSH - (M) Sperm production
    • - (F) egg maturation & estrogen production

    • LH - (M) Testosterone
    • - (F) Ovulation & corpus luteum ( secretes progesterone)
  39. What does lactation mean?
    What does oxytocin do at the breast?
    What does prolactin do?
    Lactation refers to milk production and ejection from the mammary glands.

    Oxytocin (released from the posterior pituitary) is responsible for release of milk form the mammary glands (letdown).

    Prolactin (released by the anterior pituitary) is responsible for milk secretion by the mammary glands. (needs permissive hormones to have full effect)
  40. What does ACTH stand for?
    AdrenoCorticoTropic Hormone

    Trigger for release of cortisol from the adrenal cortex
  41. What 2 cell types are in the posterior pituitary?
    What is a pituicyte?
    What is the difference between the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract and the hypophyseal portal system?
    The posterior pituitary contains pituicytes and axons from the neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus.

    A pituicyte is a glial cell similar to an astrocyte (support & protect neural cells)

    The hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract is the collection of axons that travel form the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary. ADH and oxytosin are produced by the cell bodes in the hypothalamus and travel by fast axonal transport (along the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract) to the posterior pituitary.

    The hypophyseal portal system is a special network where blood flow from capillaries to a portal vein and then into a second capillary system. It carries R and I hormones from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary.
  42. Where does ADH work?
    What 2 things does it do?
    Why is it given during a cardiac arrest for resusscitation?
    • ADH targets:
    • 1. Kidneys - retain & resorb water; decrease urine output

    2. Sudoriferous glands - decreases output to lower water loss

    3. Smooth muscle (blood vessel walls) - vasoconstriction - blood vessel walls contract - raise BP

    ADH is given during cardiac arrest because it raises blood pressure which can make the heart start pumping again.
  43. Name the 2 hormones the thyroid makes.
    What do the follicular cells make?
    The parafollicular cells?
    • 1. T3 & T4
    • 2. Calcitonin

    Follicular cells (around the lumen of the follicle) make TH

    Parafollicular cells (in the lumen) make calcitonin
  44. What is the isthmus of the thyroid?
    The isthmus connects the two lobes of the thyroid and is positioned anterior to the trachea
  45. What is the difference between T3 and T4?
    Do they have similar functions?
    T3 had 3 atoms of iodine attached and T4 has 4 atoms of iodine.

    They provide all the same functions, However T3 is several time more potent than T4 (which is produced in larger quantities)
  46. What is the only endocrine gland that stores huge quantities of its hormone?
    Do you think it's critical if you miss a dose or two of thyroid hormone medication?
    The thyroid is the only endocrine gland that stores large amounts of the hormone it produces.

    It is not critical if you miss a dose or two of thyroid medication because the thyroid stores a 100 day supply of thyroid hormone.
  47. Does thyroid hormone bind to a transport protein? Why?
    What is its free fraction?
    Does the bound fraction work when bound?
    Thyroid hormone must bind to a transport protein called TBG - Thyroid Binding Globulin in order to enter the blood stream because it is a lipid soluble hormone.

    Its free fraction is 1 % (99% is bound)

    The bound hormone can not produce an effect because it cannot bind with receptors.
  48. What is the colloid in the thyroid gland?
    The colloid is the T3 and T4 that is collected in the lumen of the thyroid follicle. It is composed of TGB (thyroglobulin) with iodine molecules attached and them paired off. The colloid returns to the follicular cells to have the T3 and T4 molecules removed from the TGB.




  49. What does thyroid hormone do to your basil metabolic rate? What is metabolism?
    What is anabolism? Catabolism?
    Is thyroid hormone one the other or both?
    Thyroid increases the BMR (a measure of O2 consumption under standard conditions)

    Metabolism is the combined total of all catabolic and anabolic reactions in the body. Catabolism is reactions that break complex molecules down into simplier ones. Anabolism is the act of building more complex units from simplier ones.

    Thyroid hormone is both anabolic and catabolic because it stimulates protein sysntesis (anabolic) and increases breakdown of carb and lipids for ATP production (catabolic)
  50. What does TH do? Why is it important for growth?
    • Thyroid Hormone:
    • -increases BMR (increases ATP production)
    • -Increases O2 consumption (caloric effect)
    • -Increases protein synthesis
    • -Increases breakdown of carbs and lipids for ATP production
    • -Increases # of beta receptors -increases HR, BP (up regulation)
    • -almost all body cells have TH receptors

    TH is important for normal growth because it works with insulin and GH to speed up growth, particularly in the nervous and skeletal systems.
  51. What does calcitonin do? How is it like PTH?
    How is it not like PTH?
    What do each of these hormones do to osteoclasts in the bone?
    Calcitonin (CT) is made by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland. It is responsible for lowering blood calcium levels by decreasing osteoclast activity and increasing osteoblast activity.

    Calcitonin and PTH are both regulators of blood calcium levels. However, their functions are opposite. PTH works to increase blood calcium levels by increasing osteoclast activity and decreasing osteoblast activity.
  52. What are chief cells and what do they make?
    Chief cells are the most numerous cells of the parathyroid glands. They produce PTH (also called parathormone)
  53. How many parathyroid glands to you have?
    Where are they located?
    There are 4 parathyroid glands. They are located on the posterior lateral lobes of the thyroid gland.
  54. If you have low calcium what does the parathyroid gland do?
    If you have low blood calcium levels the parathyroid gland secretes PTH
  55. How does PTH raise calcium?
    What is calcitriol?
    How does calcitonin interact with PTH?
    What does PTH do at the kidneys?
    • PTH raises calcium by:
    • -increasing osteoclast activity
    • -decreasing osteoblast activity
    • -increasing calcium resorption at the kidneys
    • -stimulates release of calcitriol (an active form of Vit D) form the kidneys which increases absorption of calcium from food in the GI tract.

    Since calcitonin and PTH have opposite effects they counteract one another.
  56. What organ does the adrenal gland sit on?
    Adrenal means "above renal". It is above and sits on the kidneys.
  57. Are the cortex and medulla of the adrenal gland the same type of tissue?
    No, the adrenal cortex is make of glandular epithelial tissue and the adrenal medulla is make of nervous tissue.
  58. Name the 3 zones of the adrenal cortex and the hormones they make
    1. Zona glomerulosa - outermost zone -produces mineralocorticoids (they affect mineral homeostasis) such as Aldosterone.

    2. Zona fasciculata -
    middle- makes glucocorticoids (affect glucose homeostasis) such as cortisol.

    3. Zona reticularis
    - innermost - makes androgens (male sex hormones) such as DHEA
  59. What are catecholamines? Where are they made in the adrenal gland?
    Catecholamines are neurotransmitters that are made by the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Since the adrenal medulla is nervous tissue, the ANS exerts control over the cromaffin cells and hormone release can occur quickly.

    EPI and NOR are catecholamines produced in the adrenal medulla which are used to intensify sympathetic response in other parts of the body
  60. What is an androgen? Why would an androgen be important in a female?
    • Androgens are male sex hormones made in the adrenal cortex.
    • In females they stimulate libido and are converted into estrogen. After menopause they are the females only source of estrogen.
  61. What does aldosterone do? Where does it work?
    What triggers its release?
    • Aldosterone is a mineralocorticoid that tells the kidneys to save Na+ and H2O and throw out K+
    • Secretion of aldosterone is controlled by the RAA pathway (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone)
    • ↓NA+ or ↓blood volume → ↑renin (enzyme from kidneys) → conversion to Angoitensin I (liver) → conversion to Angiotensin II (by ACE in the lungs) → release of aldosterone (adrenal cortex) → ↑Na+ and ↑ blood volume
  62. Why is cortisol catabolic? beside this characteristic, why would you give cortisone or prednisone to a patient with an inflammatory process or organ transplant?
    Why is cortisol a glucocoticoid?
    Cortisol is catabolic because it stimulates protein and lipid breakdown.

    Glucocorticoids have an anti-inflammatory effect in that they inhibit the WBCs that are part of inflammatory responses. They also depress the immune response which would be helpful in organ transplants to avoid tissue rejection by the immune system.

    Cortisol is a sympathetic "fight or flight" hormone and it has the opposite effect of insulin.
  63. What is the difference between Addison's and Cushing's disease? What is Graves disease? Goiter? Cretinism? Myxedema?
    • Addison's and Cushing's are both Adrenal gland disorders.
    • Addison's - over secretion of cortisol (usually caused by tumor) causes breakdown of muscle and redistribution of body fat (moon face, buffalo hump, hanging abdomen)

    • Cushing's - Too little glucocorticoids or aldosterone - caused by autoimmune that damage the adrenal cortex - lethargy, weakness, weight loss, vomiting -
    • loss of aldosterone causes low sodium, low blood pressure, dehydration , cardiac arrest, "bronzed skin"

    Grave's disease - hyperthyroidism - enlarged thyroid, eyes protrude (more often in females)

    Goiter = enlarged thyroid gland (can be associated with hyper or hypothyroidism) can be caused by iodine deficiency.

    Cretinism - Congenital hypothyroidism - newborns - must be treated or can cause mental retardation and stunted bone growth

    Myxedema - hypothyroidism in adults - edema (face looks puffy) slow heart rate, dry skin and hair, general lethargy, tendency to gain weight easily
  64. Where is the chromaffin cell located and what does it secrete?
    The chromaffin cells are in the adrenal medulla and secrete EPI and NOR
  65. Describe how EPI and NOR are "flight or fight" hormones?
    • EPI and NOR are released in response to stressful situations because they:
    • 1. Increase HR and cardiac output which increases BP
    • 2. Increase blood flow to the heart, liver, skeletal muscles, and fat (lipolysis)
    • 3. Increase glycogen and lipid breakdown for ATP
    • 4. Bronchodilation
    • 5. pupil dilation
  66. Are the hormones anabolic or catabolic?
    glucagon, cortisol, EPI, NOR, Insulin, GH, TH
    • Glucagon = catabolic
    • Cortisol = catabolic
    • EPI = catabolic
    • NOR = catabolic
    • Insulin = anabolic
    • GH = anabolic
    • TH = Both
  67. What 2 major hormones does the pancreas secrete?
    Insulin and glucagon
  68. In the "islets" - what cells make insulin? glucagon?
    In the islets (islets of Langerhans) of the pancreas the Alpha cells make glucagon and the Beta cells make insulin
  69. Name the 3 parts of the pancreas. If you had pancreatic cancer and turned yellow from increased bilirubin (jaundice) where would the tumor most likely be?
    The three parts of the pancreas are:

    Head, Tail, and Body

    If you turn yellow then your tumor is most likely at the head of the pancreas because it is blocking the bile duct and causing jaundice
  70. Why is insulin anabolic? How does it lower your blood glucose?
    Insulin is anabolic because it causes glucose and amino acid uptake into cells for the purpose of building glycogen and proteins. It lowers blood glucose by stimulating glucose uptake into cells. By enter the cells and being synthesized into glycogen the glucose level that is circulating in the blood drops
  71. What does glucagon to to glycogen? Why?
    Glucagon causes glygocen in the liver and skeletal muscle to be broken down so that it can reenter the blood stream as glucose. Glucacon works to increase the blood glucose level.
  72. Does EPI increase or decrease glucagon output?
    Does ACh increase or decrease insulin output?
    EPI is a fight or flight hormone so it will increase glucagon output which will increase blood glucose levels.

    ACh is a neurotransmitter that increases insulin outout
  73. What is melatonin? Where is it made? What does it do? How is it linked to your retina?
    Melatonin is a peptide hormone that is made by the pineal gland (part of epithalamus in the brain). It helps the body maintain sleep (circadian rhythms). It is regulated by the amount of light on the retina. Increase in light causes a decrease in melatonin and you wake up.
  74. What is thymosin? Where is it made? What does it do? What is the gland that makes it located?
    Thymosin is a hormone that promotes maturation of the T cell (T lymphocytes - WBCs that destroy foreign substances)

    It is made by the thymus gland which is located behind the sternum, between the lungs.
  75. What is erythropoietin? Where is it made? What does it do? Where does it do it? What triggers its release?
    Erythropoietin is a peptide hormone that helps stimulate the production and maturation of RBCs.

    Erythropoietin is make in the kidneys and travels to the bone into the red bone marrow where hemipoiesis takes place. Its release is triggered by low oxygen levels in the blood.
  76. What is renin? Where is it made? What does it do? What triggeres it release?
    Renin is a hormone that is made in the kidneys. It is part of the RAA pathway (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone).

    It is released into the blood when the sodium level or blood volume lever is low. It circulates in the blood until it reaches the liver when it converts angiotensinogen into angiotensin I.
  77. Where is the activated form of Vitamin D made? What is it called? What does it do?
    The activated form of Vit D is made in the kidneys and is called calcitriol. It is a steroid hormone that increases calcium and phosphate absorption in the small intestine. Its release is triggered by low calcium in the blood.
  78. What is ANP? Where is it made? What does it do? What triggers its release?
    ANP = Atrial Natriuretic Peptide

    It is made in the atrium of the heart. It works to increase sodium and water loss in the kidneys (more output of water and sodium) to lower blood volume and blood pressure.

    Release is triggered by an increase in atrial sretch (indicating increased blood volume or BP)
  79. What do leukotirenes (LTs) and prostaglandins (PGs) do? What body cells make them? How does aspirin work?
    How does aspirin lower your temperature if you have a fever?
    Prostoglandins and Leukotrienes are eicosinoids (water soluble local hormones). They are made by almost all cells in the body except RBCs. They are inflammatory mediators. Aspirin works by inhibiting PG synthesis. Any response that PGs would normally have - raised temperature, pain, swelling, can be counteracted by aspirin because aspirin is able to stop the PGs from being synthesized and thus stop them from raising body temperature.

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