Orthopedics

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runner0369
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60264
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Orthopedics
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2011-01-31 22:15:11
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Sherman Orthopedics
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Flashcards on the orthopedic exams taught at Sherman
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  1. How is Bakody's test performed?
    • Seated
    • Patient actively places palm of arm of complaint on top of head with elbow at level of head
  2. What is a Positive sign for Bakody's? What does it indicate?
    Decreased pain --> Foraminal Compression, Cervical Radiculopathy
  3. How is the Distraction test performed?
    • Seated
    • Exert upward pressure on patient's head at base of skull/mastoids (avoid mandible)
  4. What is a positive sign for the Distraction test? What does it indicate?
    • Decreased pain --> foraminal encroachment or facet capsulitis
    • Increased pain --> sprain/strain/spasm
  5. How is Foraminal Compression performed?
    • Seated
    • Patient rotates head side to side actively
    • With head in neutral extert downward pressure on head and neck
    • Rotate head to side of complaint, exert pressure
    • Repeat on opposite side
    • After each step ask if there is pain
  6. What is a positive Forminal encroachment? What does a positive indicate?
    • Local pain --> foraminal encroachement or facet capulitis
    • Radicular pain --> nerve root pressure (cervical radiculopathy)
  7. How is Jackson's Compression test performed?
    • Seated
    • Laterally flex head to right and exert downward pressure
    • Repeat on opposite side
    • Ask if there is pain
  8. What is a positve for Jackson's? What does it indicate?
    Pain on side of lateral flexion --> Foraminal encroachment, cervical radiculopathy or facet capulitis
  9. How is Lhermitte's Sign performed?
    • Seated/Supine
    • Patient actively flexes head toward chest
    • Can also be performed passively
  10. What is a positive Lhermitte's? What does it indicate?
    • Sharp, electric shocks down spine into extremeties indicates
    • Demyelinating cord disease (Multiple Sclerosis or myelopathy)
  11. How is Maximum Cervical Compression test performed?
    • Seated
    • Patient actively, maximally flexes neck and rotates head to right
    • to left
    • Repeat with neck in extension
    • Ask if pain occurs with any of these movements
  12. What is a Positive Sign for Maximal Cervical compression? What does a positive indicate?
    Increased pain --> Facet Capulitis, Foraminal encroachment, Cervical radiculopathy
  13. How is Naffziger's test performed?
    • Seated
    • Compress jugular veins for one minute bilaterally
    • If no pain have patient take a breath and cough
  14. What is a positive Naffziger's? What does it indicate?
    Radicular or Local pain indicates a SOL (space occupying lesion)
  15. What are 3 examples of SOL?
    • Osteophyte
    • Tumor
    • Disc rupture
  16. What are 3 contraindicators for Naffziger's test?
    Visible jugulars, migraines, vascular disorders
  17. How is O'Donoghue's Maneuver performed?
    • Seated
    • Cervical spine is moved actively through resisted ROM then passively
  18. What is a positive for O'Donoghue's? What does it indicate? Where can it be used?
    • Pain during active --> muscle strain
    • Pain during passive --> ligament sprain
    • Can be used on any joint
  19. How is the shoulder depression test performed?
    • Seated
    • Doctor depresses shoulder on side of complaint while laterally flexing head to opposite side
  20. What is a positive for Shoulder depression? What does it indicate?
    • Shooting arm pain
    • Dural sleeve adhesion (burner/stinger) - adhesion of brachial plexus doesn't allow sleeve to slide
  21. How is the Soto-Hall test performed?
    • Supine
    • One hand on sternum (knife edge contact) to stabilize, other hand passively flexes head to chest
  22. What is a positive for Soto-Hall? What does it indicate?
    • Local pain
    • Fracture, cervical disc rupture, facet capulitis
    • If ant. pain --> ant. compression fracture
    • If post. pain --> post. ligament sprain or muscle strain
    • If head pain --> possible meningitis
  23. How is Spurling's test performed? What is an alternate method?
    • Seated
    • Patiently activately rotates head side to side
    • Laterally flex head toward side of complaint, press down
    • Ask if pain after each step
    • Alternate method: percuss patient on top of head and ask if pain in neck
  24. What is a positive for spurling's? What does it indicate?
    • Pain to side of flexion or with percussion
    • Radicular pain --> nerve root compression
    • Local pain --> facet capulitis
  25. Which of the cervical tests is most aggressive?
    Spurling's
  26. How is Valsalva's Maneuver performed?
    • Seated
    • Sit up straight, take a deep breath then bear down
    • Do you feel any pain? Where?
  27. What is a positive Valsalva's? What does it indicate?
    • Local or shooting pain
    • Increased intrathecal pressure (inside dura) due to an SOL
  28. How is cervical collapse sign performed?
    • Seated
    • Doctor applies downward pressure in neutral position
  29. What is a positive for Cervical collapse sign? What does it indicate?
    • Neck collapses
    • Grade 2 or 3 sprain
  30. When should you try to ellicit a cervical collapse sign? What should you do if it is positive?
    • If any trauma
    • Do not adjust! Refer to MD.
  31. How is Bikele's test performed?
    • Seated
    • Shoulder abducted to 90 with elbow flexed, patient actively extends elbow while attempting to reach behind them
  32. What is a positive for Bikele's? What does it indicate?
    • Radicular pain
    • Radiculopathy, Brachial plexus neuritis (esp. C7 to T1)
    • If bilateral positive --> possible meningitis
  33. How is the Vertebral-Basilar artery function test performed?
    • Seated
    • Have the patient sit up straight
    • Palpate and auscultate carotid and subclavian arteries
    • Have patient hyperextend and rotate neck
    • Hold for 30 seconds then repeat on opposite side
  34. What is a positive for the vertebral-basilar artery function test? What does it indicate?
    • Vertigo, diplopia, nystagmus, syncope, nausea
    • Vertebral insufficiency
  35. What are the signs for a stroke? (9) What should you do if a patient shows any of these?
    • Dizziness, drop attacks, diplopia, dysarthria, dysphagia, ataxia, nausea, numbness, nystagmus
    • Do not use rotary moves!
    • Refer to a neurologist
  36. How is Maigne's maneuver performed?
    • Seated
    • Ask patient to rotate and extend head for 30 seconds to each side
  37. What is a positive for Maigne's maneuver? What does it indicate?
    • Vertigo, diplopia, nystagmus, syncope, nausea
    • Vertebral, basilar or carotid artery stenosis (vascular insufficiency)
  38. How is Barre-Leiou sign performed?
    • Seated
    • Have the patient slowly rotate their head from side to side for 30 seconds
  39. What is a positive for Barre-Leiou sign? What does it indicate?
    • Vertigo, diplopia, nystagmus, syncope, nausea
    • Vertebral artery compression/syndrome
  40. How is Adson's test performed?
    • Seated
    • Doctor slightly abducts and extends arm back while taking radial pulse
    • Ask patient to rotate head to affected shoulder and extend neck
    • Patient takes a deep breath and holds
  41. What is a positive for Adson's test? What does it indicate?
    • Disappearance or alteration of pulse
    • Scalenus Anticus syndrome (anterior scalenes)
  42. What is Modified Adson's test? What does a positive indicate for it?
    • If Adson's is negative have patient turn head to opposite side
    • If pulse changes or disappears it indicates a spasm of the scalenus medius
  43. How is Allen's test performed?
    • Seated
    • Patient's elbow is flexed, arm supinated
    • Occlude radial and ulnar arteries distally
    • Patient opens and closes fist repeatedly to express remaining blood --> hand blanches
    • Doctor releases one artery and observes refill
    • Repeat procedure for the other artery
  44. What is a positive for Allen's test? What does it indicate?
    • If skin of hand remains blanched longer than 5 seconds
    • Arterial occlusion/compromise
  45. What are the 5 types of Thoracic outlet syndrome?
    • Cervical rib
    • Anterior scalenes
    • Medial scalenes
    • Pec minor
    • Costoclavicular
  46. How is Costoclavicular Maneuver performed?
    • Seated
    • Palpate radial pulse bilaterally while pulling the patients shoulders down and into extension
    • Ask patient to flex their chin to their chest
  47. What is another name for Costoclavicular Maneuver? What is a positive for it? What does a positive indicate?
    • Eden's
    • Alteration of pulse and/or replication of complaints (paresthesia, pallor, blanching, radiculopathy)
    • Costoclavicular syndrome (compression of neurovascular bundle between clavicle and first rib)
  48. How is Halstead Maneuver performed?
    • Seated
    • 1. Doctor pulls patients arm inferiorly while taking radial pulse, patient is asked to extend neck
    • 2. If negative, patient extends neck and looks away from affected side
  49. What is a positive for Halstead Maneuver? What does it indicate?
    • Change in amplitude/disappearance of pulse
    • Thoracic outlet syndrome (1st is costoclavicular, 2nd is medial scalenes)
  50. How is Reverse Bakody Maneuver performed?
    • Seated
    • Patient places palm on top of head with elbow at head level
  51. What is a positive for reverse Bakody? What does it indicate?
    • Increased or appearance of pain
    • Thoracic outlet syndrome (Pec minor, cervical rib or costoclavicular)
  52. How is Roos test performed?
    • Seated
    • Patient bends elbows to 90 degrees and abducts and externally rotates shoulders then opens and closes hands for 3 minutes
  53. What is a positive for Roos? What does it indicate?
    • Reproduction of symptoms
    • Thoracic outlet syndrome (general)
  54. How is Wright's test performed?
    • Seated
    • Doctor monitors radial pulse of affected arm while passively abducting arm 180 degrees
    • Note at what angle the radial pulse diminishes or disappears on each side
  55. What is another name for Wright's test? What is a positive for Wright's test? What does a positive indicate?
    • Hyperabduction maneuver
    • Decreased or disappearance of pulse at a smaller angle than the other side
    • Pectoralis minor syndrome
  56. What if when doing Wright's test in both arms the pulse decreases at the same angle?
    • Test is negative
    • Could be normal or could be bilateral TOS, use other tests to confirm
  57. What tests would you do for foraminal compression/encroachment, cervial radiculopathy or facet capsulitis?
    • Bakody sign
    • Distraction test
    • Foraminal compression
    • Jackson's compression test
    • Maximum cervical compression test
    • Spurlings test
  58. What test would you do for demyelinating cord disease (multiple sclerosis, myelopathy)?
    Lhermitte's sign
  59. What tests would you do for an SOL of cervicals?
    • Naffziger's test
    • Valsalva's maneuver
  60. What test would you do for a muscle strain or ligament sprain of cervicals?
    • Distraction test (negative)
    • O'Donoghue's maneuver
    • Cervical collapse sign (grade 2-3 sprain)
  61. What test would you do for brachial plexus neuritis?
    • Shoulder Depression test (burner/stinger)
    • Bikele's test
  62. What test would you do for a cervical fracture?
    Soto-hall
  63. What tests would you do for vascular insufficiency in the cervicals?
    • Vertebral-basilar artery function test
    • Maigne's maneuver
    • Barre-Leiou sign
  64. What tests would be positive for scalenus anticus syndrome?
    • Adson's test
    • Roos test
  65. What tests would be positive for a spasm in scalenus medius?
    • Modified adson's test
    • 2nd part of Halstead maneuver
    • Roos test
  66. What test would you do for an arterial occlusion/compromise of the arteries of the arm?
    Allen's test
  67. What tests would you do to confirm Thoracic outlet syndrome?
    • Adson's test
    • Costoclavicular maneuver (eden's)
    • Halstead maneuver
    • Reverse Bakody maneuver
    • Roos test
    • Wright's test (hyperabduction maneuver)
  68. What test would be positive for costoclavicular syndrome?
    • Costoclavicular maneuver (Eden's)
    • 1st part of Halstead maneuver
    • Reverse Bakody maneuver
    • Roos test
  69. What tests would be positive for Pec minor syndrome?
    • Reverse Bakody maneuver
    • Roos test
    • Wright's test (hyperabduction maneuver)
  70. What is the difference between a radiculopathy and a neuropathy?
    • Radiculopathy - issue is at nerve root
    • Neuropathy - peripheral nerve issue
  71. How is Apley's test performed?
    • Seated
    • Patient reaches behind head to touch superior angle of opposite scapula
    • Patient reaches behind to touch inferior angle of scapula
    • Patient reaches with same arm to touch opposite shoulder
  72. What is a positive for Apley's (scratch) test? What does it indicate?
    • Increased pain or reduced ROM (can't reach)
    • General shoulder problem (not specific)
  73. How is the apprehension test performed?
    • Seated or supine
    • Patient's elbow is bent to 90 degrees, passively abducted and externally rotated
    • Doctor watches patient's face for indication of apprehesion
  74. What is a positive for the apprehension test? What does a positive indicate?
    • Patient shows apprehesion/alarm or resists further ROM for fear of dislocation
    • Chronic anterior and inferior (95%) instability (previous dislocation)
  75. How would you test for a posterior previous dislocation?
    Internally rotate arm
  76. If the apprehesion test is positive, what would you do next?
    • Relocation test
    • Push humerus back into place
    • Watch if alarm goes away
    • Confirmatory test for Ant. and inf. should instability
  77. How is codman's sign performed?
    • Seated
    • Variation 1: Patient's arm is passively abducted to 90 degrees then dropped (tell them to let their arm fall to their side)
    • Varitation 2; Patient's arm is slowly abducted to 90 degrees then ask them to slowly lower it down to their side
  78. What is another name for Codman's sign? What is a positive for Codman's? What does a positive indicate?
    • Drop arm test
    • Pain in shoulder when tries to catch arm
    • Rotator cuff tear (rupture of supraspinatus tendon)
  79. What muscle initiates arm abduction?
    Supraspinatus
  80. What muscle finishes abduction of arm?
    Deltoid
  81. What are the rotator cuff muscles? Where do they originate and insert?
    • SITS: Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres minor, Subscapularis
    • Scapula --> humerus (pull humerus down and in when contract)
  82. What is painful arc syndrome? What is it associated with?
    • Pain in part of abduction
    • Associated with rotator cuff issue
  83. How is dawburn's sign performed?
    • Seated
    • Doctor applies pressure to subacromial bursa producing local pain
    • Patient's arm is then passively abducted
  84. What is a positive for Dawburn's?
    • Arm is abducted --> pain disappears
    • Sub acromial bursitis
    • Note: bursitis is not generally a primary condition, search for other issues
  85. How is Impingement sign performed?
    • Seated
    • Patient's arm is slightly abducted and moved through shoulder flexion passively to straight up
  86. What is a positive for the impingement sign? What does it indicate?
    • Pain in shoulder
    • Impingement of supraspinatus/biceps tendon (long head) - jamming of greater tuberosity against acromion process
  87. How is Mazion's Shoulder Rock Test?
    • Seated
    • Patient places the palm of affected arm on opposite shoulder with elbow facing anterior
    • Patiently actively moves arm up and down (chest to forehead) while leaving hand on other shoulder
  88. What is a positive for Mazion's Shoulder Rock test?
    • Pain in ipsilateral shoulder or arm
    • General significant shoulder pathology
  89. How is the supraspinatus press test performed?
    • Seated
    • Patient's arm is actively abducted to 90 degrees then resistance is given
    • The shoulder is then medially rotated and angled forward 30 degrees with thumb to floor and given resistance
  90. What is scaption?
    Flexed shoulder, arm 30 degrees forward
  91. What is another name for the supraspinatus press test? What is a positive for it? What would a positive indicate?
    • Empty can test
    • Weakness or pain in affected shoulder
    • Partial or full tear of supraspinatus tendon
  92. How is Yerguson's test performed?
    • Seated
    • patient's elbow is flexed to 90 degrees while being stabilized
    • Doctor resists active flexion of elbow
    • Doctor resists active supination of forearm
  93. What is a positive for Yerguson's test? What does it indicate?
    • Audible click or snap of biceps tendon (may be heard at elbow or shoulder, usually elbow)
    • Instability of biceps tendon
    • Pain is NOT a positive
  94. How is Speed's test performed?
    • Seated
    • Pull down quickly on hand with elbow and shoulder flexed (they resist)
  95. What is a positive for speed's test? What does it indicate?
    • Pain in shoulder over biceps tendon
    • Bicepital tendonitis
  96. How is the sub acromial push button test performed?
    • Seated
    • Stand behind the patient and apply pressure directly over the sub acromial bursa (1st part of Dawburn's test)
  97. What is a positive for the sub acromial push button test? What does it indicate?
    • Pain in shoulder with pressure
    • Sub acromial bursitis
  98. How is Bryant's test performed?
    • Seated
    • Patient's shirt is removed, doctor compares the axillary fold bilatrally
  99. What is a positive test for Bryant's test? What does it indicate?
    • One axillary fold will be lower than the other
    • Shoulder dislocation
  100. How is Calloway's test performed?
    • Seated
    • Doctor measures circumference of shoulder from armpit to point of shoulder
  101. What is a positive for Calloway's? What does it indicate?
    • One shoulder is larger by more than 1 inch
    • Shoulder dislocation
  102. How is Duga's test performed?
    • Seated
    • Patient rests hand of affect arm on opposite shoulder then attempts to rest elbow on chest
    • Doctor lightly pushes if won't touch
  103. What is a positive for Duga's test? What does it indicate?
    • Unable to rest elbow on chest
    • Shoulder dislocation
  104. How is Hamilton's test performed?
    • Seated
    • Doctor places straight edge/ruler against the acromial tip and lateral epicondyle elbow
  105. What is a positive for Hamilton's test? What does it indicate?
    • Ruler touches acromion and lateral epicondyle at the same time
    • Shoulder dislocation (shoulder has displaced, exposing the acromial tip)
  106. What is the step defect?
    • Occurs if shoulder is dislocated
    • Step from acromial tip to humeral head
  107. What tests would indicate a shoulder instability from a previous dislocation?
    • Apprehesion test
    • Relocation test
  108. What test would indicate a shoulder pathology (non-specific)?
    • Apley's scratch test
    • Mazion's Shoulder Rock test
  109. What tests would indicate a partial or full tear of the supraspinatus tendon (rotator cuff tear)?
    • Codman's sign (drop arm)
    • Supraspinatus press test (empty can test)
  110. What test would indicate sub acromial bursitis?
    • Dawburn's sign
    • Sub acromial push button test
  111. What test would indiacte a problem with the biceps tendon?
    • Impingement sign
    • Yerguson's test (instability)
    • Speed's test (bicipital tendonitis)
  112. What tests would indicate a shoulder dislocation?
    • Bryant's test
    • Calloway's test
    • Duga's test
    • Hamilton's test
  113. How is Cozen's test performed?
    • Seated/Standing
    • Patient is asked to clench a fist in pronation
    • Doctor resists wrist extension
  114. What nerve root does Cozen's test? What is a positive for Cozen's test? What does a positive indicate?
    • C6
    • Sharp, local pain in lateral epicondyle
    • Lateral epicondylitis or radiohumeral bursitis
  115. What is another name for lateral epicondylitis? What tendon is the most commonly affected?
    • Tennis elbow
    • Extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon
  116. How is mill's test performed?
    • Seated/standing
    • Patient flexes forearm, fingers and wrist then the forearm is passively pronated with the wrist flexed
  117. What is a positive for Mill's test? What does it indicate?
    • Increased elbow pain
    • Lateral epicondylitis
  118. How is Golfer's elbow test performed?
    • Seated
    • Patient's forearm is stabilized with elbow flexed and arm supinated
    • Patient flexes wrist against resistance
    • Variation: Patient's wrist is fully extended and given resistance in flexion
  119. What nerve root does Golfer's elbow test test? What is another name for Golfer's elbow test?
    • C7
    • Reverse Cozen's
  120. What is a positive for Golfer's elbow? What does it indicate?
    • Pain over the medial epicondyle
    • Medial epicondylitis (Golfer's elbow) (flexor pronator aponeurosis tendonitis)
  121. How is the elbow flexion test performed?
    • Seated
    • Patient completely flexes elbow for 5 minutes (holding it with opposite arm)
  122. What is a positive for the elbow flexion test? What does a positive indicate?
    • Tingling or parasthesia in the ulnar distribution of the forearm and hand and medial 2 fingers
    • Cubital tunnel syndrome (compression of the ulnar nerve in cubital tunnel)
  123. How is the varus stress test performed in the elbow?
    • Seated
    • Patient's arm is flexed 20 degrees
    • Doctor pushes medial to lateral at elbow while applying pressure lateral to medial at the wrist
  124. What is another name for the varus stress test in the elbow? What is a positive for it? What does it indicate?
    • Adduction stress test (note: adduction of wrist occurs)
    • Pain in lateral elbow
    • Damage of lateral collateral ligament
  125. How is the valgus stress test performed in the elbow?
    • Seated
    • Patient's arm is flexed 20 degrees
    • Doctor pushes lateral to medial at elbow while applying pressure lateral to medial at the wrist
  126. What is another name for the valgus stress test in the elbow? What is a positive for it? What does a positive indicate?
    • Abduction stress test
    • Pain in medial elbow
    • Damage of medial collateral ligament
  127. How is Tinel's sign performed in the elbow?
    • Seated
    • Doctor taps on the groove between the olecranon process and the lateral epicondyle with a reflex hammer
    • Repeat between groove and medial epicondyle
  128. What is a positve for Tinel's sign in the elbow? What does it indicate?
    • Hypersensitvity, parasthesia
    • Medial --> ulnar nerve neuropathy
    • Lateral --> radial nerve neuropathy
  129. What test would be positve for lateral epicondylitis?
    • Cozen's test
    • Mill's test
  130. What tests would be positive for radiohumeral bursitis?
    Cozen's test
  131. What test would be positive for Medial epicondylitis?
    Golfer's elbow test (reverse cozen's)
  132. What test would be positive for cubital tunnel syndrome?
    Elbow flexion test
  133. What test would be positive for lateral collateral ligament damage to the elbow?
    Varus stress test
  134. What test would be positive for medial collateral ligament damage to the elbow?
    Valgus stress test
  135. What test would be positive for ulnar or radial neuropathy?
    Tinel's sign
  136. How is the bracelet test performed?
    • Any position
    • Doctor gives moderate lateral compressive pressure to distal ulna and radius (squeeze wrist)
  137. What is a positive for the Bracelet test? What does it indicate?
    • Acute forearm, wrist and hand pain, bilateral
    • RA when correlated with labs, x-ray and 6 weeks of waking with swelling/dexterity issues
  138. How is Finklestein's test performed?
    • Seated or standing
    • Patient makes a fist around their thumb
    • Doctor stabilizes the forearm and passively flexes the wrist into ulnar deviation
  139. What is a positive for Finklestein's test? What does it indicate?
    • Pain over abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons at wrist
    • deQuervain's tenosynovitis (stenosing tenosynovitis) - narrowing of the sheath around the tendons
  140. How is Froment's paper sign performed?
    • Seated
    • Doctor places a piece of paper between abducted fingers and tells the patient to adduct the finger and not allow the paper to be pulled out
    • Fingers must remain straight
    • Test between all fingers
  141. What is a positive for Froment's paper sign? What does it indicate?
    • Doctor is able to pull paper away from between at least one
    • Ulnar nerve palsy (affects interosseous muscles)
  142. How is Phalen's sign performed?
    • Seated
    • Patient actively flexes both wrists and places the dorsum of both hands together for one minute
  143. What is a positive for Phalen's sign? What does it indicate?
    • Tingling sensation that radiates into thumb, index, middle and lateral half of ring finger
    • Carpal tunnel syndrome
  144. How is Tinel's sign performed in the elbow?
    • Seated
    • Doctor percusses over the flexor retinaculum (at bottom of crease of hand)
    • Doctor also percusses over the Tunnel of Guyon (just medial to pisiform)
  145. What is a postive for Tinel's sign in the wrist? What does it indicate?
    • Replication of tingling in thumb, index, middle and lateral half of ring finger distal to point of pressure
    • Flexor retinaculum --> Carpal tunnel syndrome
    • Tunnel of Guyon --> Peripheral neuropathy, ulnar nerve compression
  146. How is prayer sign performed? What is another name for it?
    • Seated
    • Palm's are pressed together for one minute
    • Reverse Phalen's
  147. What is a positive for Prayer sign? What does it indicate?
    • Tingling sensation that radiates into thumb, index, middle and lateral half of ring finger
    • Carpal tunnel syndrome
  148. How is the carpal lift test performed?
    • Seated
    • Patient's hand is flat on table
    • Doctor stabilizes metacarpals of hand
    • Patient lifts each finger off of the table against resistance
  149. What is a positive for Carpal lift test? What does it indicate?
    • Pain in wrist
    • Carpal fracture/sprain
  150. How is the Pinch grip test performed?
    • Seated
    • Patient is asked to approximate the tips of the index finger and thumb (ok sign)
  151. What is a positive for the Pinch grip test? What does it indicate?
    • If pads touch only (patient can't make tips touch)
    • Median nerve compression
    • Anterior interosseous syndrome

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