N300 Quiz 1

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N300 Quiz 1
2011-01-17 15:09:46
nursing endocrine

Endocrine System
Show Answers:

  1. Hormones work in a ______ manner.
    Lock and key
  2. This type of control for hormone synthesis is______ because the hormone causes the opposite action of the initial condition change.
    negative feedback
  3. True or False.

    An example of a simple negative feedback hormone response is the control of insulin secretion
  4. The adrenal cortex secretes which 2 hormones?
    • 1. Glucocorticoids (cortisol)
    • 2. Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
  5. The antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and Oxytocin are secreted by which endocrine gland?
    Posterior pituitary
  6. The pancreas secretes 3 hormones, name them.
    • 1. Glucagon
    • 2. Insulin
    • 3. Somatostatin
  7. Low blood levels of cortisol from the adrenal cortex stimulate the secretion of ____ in the hypothalmus.
    Corticotropic-releasing hormone (CRH)
  8. Rising blood levels of cortisol _____ CRH release from the hypothalamus.
  9. What are tropic hormones?
    Hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands
  10. Prolactin (PRL) stimulates____.
    Breast milk production
  11. Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone [ADH]) promotes
    Water reabsorption
  12. Oxytocin stimulates______.
    Uterine contractions and ejection of breast milk
  13. This hormone promotes pigmentation _____.
    MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone)
  14. ______ stimulates synthesis and release of corticosteroids and adrenocortical growth
    ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticotropin)
  15. _____, the chief mineralocorticoid produced by the adrenal cortex, maintains extracellular fluid volume.
  16. True or False.
    Aldosterone promotes water & sodium and reabsorption and potassium excretion.
  17. Epinephrine and norepinephrine are examples of _____.
  18. True or False,
    T3 & T4 hormones increase metabolism, which causes an increase in oxygen use and heat production in all tissues.
  19. What are some functions of thyroid hormones?
    • • Fetal development, particularly neural and skeletal systems
    • • Control metabolic rate of all cells
    • • Promote sufficient pituitary secretion of growth hormone and gonadotropins
    • • Regulate protein, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism
    • • Exert chronotropic and inotropic cardiac effects
    • • Increase red blood cell production
    • • Affect respiratory rate and drive
    • • Increase bone formation and decrease bone resorption of calcium
    • • Act as insulin antagonists
  20. True or False
    The presence of T4 and T3 directly regulates basal metabolic rate (BMR).
  21. ____ lowers serum calcium and serum phosphorus levels by reducing bone resorption (breakdown).
  22. _____ increases bone resorption (bone release of calcium into the blood from bone storage sites), thus increasing serum calcium.
    Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
  23. The main glucocorticoid produced by the adrenal cortex is _____.
  24. The release of glucocorticoids is regulated directly by the anterior pituitary hormone (1) and indirectly by the hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone
    (2) .
    • 1. ACTH
    • 2. CRH
  25. ____ is a hormone that increases blood glucose level.
  26. ______ which is secreted not only in the pancreas but also in the intestinal tract and the brain, inhibits the release of glucagon and insulin from the pancreas.
  27. How does insulin affect blood glucose level?
    By enhancing glucose movement across cell membranes and into the cells of many tissues.
  28. _____ is excessive thyroid hormone secretion from the thyroid gland
  29. Name key features of hyperthyroidism
    • *Diaphoresis (excessive sweating)
    • *Fatigue
    • *Heat intolerance
    • *Manic behavior
    • *Decreased total WBC
    • *Tremors
    • *Insomnia
    • *Smooth, warm, moist, skin
    • *Tachycardia
    • *Weight loss
    • *Increased appetitie
    • *Muscle weakness/wasting
    • *Increased BMR
  30. ____ can occur when hyperthyroidism is untreated or poorly controlled or when the patient is severely stressed.
    Thyroid storm/thyroid crisis
  31. The cardiac problems of hyperthyroidism include increased ____, _____, & _____.
    Systolic blood pressure, tachycardia, and dysrhythmias.
  32. True or False.
    The patient with hyperthyroidism often has wide mood swings, irritability, decreased attention span, and manic behavior.
  33. _____ is a rare, serious complication of untreated or poorly treated hypothyroidism. The decreased metabolism causes the heart muscle to become flabby and the chamber size to increase.
    Myxedema coma
  34. Name key features of hypothyroidism.
    • Weight gain
    • Bradycardia
    • Decreased BMR
    • Cool, pale or yellowish, dry, coarse, scaly skin
    • Decreased hair growth, with loss of eyebrow hair
    • Poor wound healing
    • Enlarged heart
    • Decreased activity tolerance
    • Hypotension
    • Depression
    • Paranoia
  35. True or False.
    Anti-diuretic leads to increased fluid retention.
  36. Excessive secretion after the closure of the epiphyses leads to _____.
  37. What is gigantism?
    Excessive secretion before the closure of the epiphyses
  38. True or False.
    Syndrome of Inappropriate antidiurectic hormone (SIADH) leads to fluid retention, dilutional hyponatremia/low sodium & concentrated urine
  39. Diabetes insipidus leads to _____ urine output.
  40. ____ is necessary for T4 & T3 hormone production.
  41. The ____ releases catecholamines.
    Adrenal medulla
  42. What disease process is shown in the figure below?

    Cushing Syndrome
  43. ___ is a tumor of the adrenal medulla & it causes severe hypertension.