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By scholarly convention, prehistory refers to the period
before the invention of writing
Human beings and large apes are significantly different in
level of intelligence
The famous Lucy was
The family of hominids includes all of the following species except
apes and monkeys.
A major difference between Homo erectus and Australopithecus was the ability to
communicate through language.
Homo sapiens were better hunters than Australopithecus and Homo erectus because they
had larger brains and higher intelligence.
The most significant defining characteristic of the Paleolithic era was that
peoples relied on hunting and gathering for subsistence.
What is the significance of the Natufian, Jomon, and Chinook cultures?
- They show that some Paleolithic cultures settled permanently.
- They show that some Paleolithic peoples lived in much larger groups.
- They show that some Paleolithic cultures had specialization of labor.
- They show that some Paleolithic cultures had hierarchies of authority.
Neandertal peoples developed a capacity for emotion and feelings, which can be seen from their
Cro-Magnon peoples were
Homo sapiens sapiens.
The prominent sexual features of Venus figurines at Cro-Magnon sites indicate that the Cro-Magnon peoples
were strongly concerned with fertility and the generation of new life.
What was a likely purpose of Cro-Magnon cave painting?
to exercise sympathetic magic.
The term Neolithic era refers to
- the early stages of a cultivating society.
- the agricultural transition.
- the era in which the peoples began to use polished stone tools.
- the era in which people began to live permanently in villages.
By about 5000 B.C.E., agriculture had displaced hunting and gathering societies in several regions of the world primarily because
cultivation provided a relatively stable and regular supply of food.
All of the following social changes were brought about by agriculture except
the invention of writing.
The site of Jericho was one of the earliest known
Three Neolithic industries that illustrate the greatest potential of specialized labor include
pottery, metallurgy, and textiles.
Çatal Hüyük is an archaeological site in Anatolia from Neolithic times in which one can readily see evidence of
specialization of labor.
The belief that Neolithic religious thought clearly reflected the natural world of early agricultural society is based on observation of
representations of gods and goddesses.
Cities first emerged from agricultural villages and towns in
the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
- a king of the city-state of Uruk.
- a hero in a popular Mesopotamian epic.
- a warrior in conflict with the city of Kish.
- a legendary loyal friend of Enkidu.
Which of the following is not true of the land called Mesopotamia?
It is a land of abundant rainfall and fertile plains.
Which of the following did Sumerian cities and their governments do?
- organize work on building projects.
- rule over the area surrounding the city.
- oversee the construction and maintenance of irrigation systems.
- organize the defense of the city against attacks.
Sargon of Akkad
was a gifted administrator and warrior.
In Hammurabi's code you would be unlikely to find
laws that indicate a suspect is innocent until proven guilty.
Which of the following peoples did not rule a Mesopotamian empire?
Which of the following was the latest invention?
Which of the following is true of the social classes of ancient Mesopotamia?
Priests and priestesses were powerful rulers over temple communities.
involved wedge-shaped symbols pressed onto clay with a reed.
Which of the following was not a form of written documentation from Mesopotamia?
instructions on mummification of bodies.
The Epic of Gilgamesh
- recounts the adventures of Gilgamesh and his friend.
- describes the hero's efforts to attain immortality.
- explored relations between humans and the gods.
- contemplates the meaning of life and death.
The religious beliefs of the Israelites after Moses included
After the tenth century B.C.E., the Israelites experienced
- the division of the kingdom of Israel.
- conquest by the Assyrians.
- the destruction of Jerusalem by the New Babylonian empire.
- the return of deportees to Judea where they became known as Jews
were prosperous based on their sea trade and commercial networks.
According to the excerpt "Israelites" Relations with Neighboring Peoples,"
Solomon sent laborers to Hiram.
Which of the following is not associated with the Phoenicians?
Who first deduced the existence of an Indo-European culture?
The key element in the expansion of the Indo-Europeans from their homeland was
Which of the following was not an area to which the Indo-Europeans migrated?
east and southeast Asia.
The Greek historian Herodotus proclaimed Egypt "the gift of the Nile" because, in his account,
the reliable rhythm of the Nile created fertile land, which supported a remarkably productive agricultural economy.
Around 5000 B.C.E. the climate in northern Africa began to change by
getting hotter and drier.
Which of the following is true of the Nile?
It used to flood very predictably.
In contrast to Egypt, Nubian agriculture
required extensive preparation of the soil.
Unification of Egyptian rule came about through the conqueror
The Egyptian pyramids
- were built during the Old Kingdom.
- served as royal tombs.
- are testimony to the power of the pharaoh.
- stand at Giza.
Mummification, pyramids, and funerary rituals in ancient Egypt were extremely costly and troublesome. The customs prevailed for several thousand years because
Egyptians believed in an afterlife.
In ancient Egypt, the largest pyramid was that of
After the Hyksos invasion
the Egyptians adopted horses and chariots in their military.
After the tenth century, the Kingdom of Kush
- conquered Egypt.
- established a capital at Napata.
- claimed the title of pharaoh.
- warred with the Assyrians.
Which of the following was not an important city in ancient Egypt?
Unlike Egypt, Nubian society
saw many more women rulers.
Technologically speaking, the Nile societies
- were slower to develop metallurgy than Mesopotamia was.
- learned iron metallurgy from sub-Saharan African cultures.
- developed systems of water transport like the sailboat.
- produced fine linen textiles.
Which of the following is true of Egyptian writing?
It included hieroglyphic, hieratic, demotic, and Coptic scripts.
All of the following were important Egyptian gods except
A significant difference between Nubian and Egyptian religion was that
Nubians did not mummify their dead.
The original Bantu people
- spoke a language in the Niger-Congo family.
- settled mostly on the banks of rivers.
- came from what is now Nigeria.
- cultivated yams and palm oils.
With regard to the Bantu migrations,
they placed pressure on the forest dwellers by moving inland.
helped the Bantu expand their agricultural land.
Which of the following is associated with agricultural societies south of the Sahara?
- cultivation of yams, oil palms, and sorghum.
- herding sheep, cattle, pigs.
- age sets and initiation rites.
- monotheistic religions.
Our understanding of Harappan society depends entirely on
archeological discoveries of Harappan physical remains above the water table.
The inhabitants of Harappan society enjoyed a rich variety of diet. Their food included
wheat, barley, chicken, cattle, sheep, goats.
In the sites of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, archeologists have found a high degree of standardization of weights, measures, architectural styles, and even brick sizes. Such standardization may suggest that
there might have been a central authority powerful enough to reach all corners of society.
Archaeologists claim that there were sharp social distinctions in Harappan society, which can be illustrated by the people's
houses, ovens, and wells.
Harappan religion reflected a strong concern for fertility. We know this because
of the similarities between the images of Harappan deities and the images of Hindu fertility deities.
By about 1700 B.C.E., the residents of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro began to abandon their cities because
deforestation of the Indus River valley brought about ecological degradation.
The Indo-Europeans who migrated to the Indian subcontinent
- were primarily herders.
- utilized horses for transportation.
- judged wealth by the number of cattle.
- called themselves Aryans
The period of Indian history from 1500 to 500 B.C.E. is called the Vedic Age. It is so called because
the four earliest religious texts were compiled in this period.
The Aryans' term for their four original castes was
The Indian caste system
was a central institution that served to promote social stability.
One of the hymns in the Rig Veda offered a brief account of the origins of the four varnas (castes). It was said that
the four castes emanated from the four parts of Purusha when the gods sacrificed him
Which of the following was evidence of the subordination of women to men in Aryan society?
- patrilineal descent
- the Lawbook of Manu.
- the practice of sati.
- women had no responsibilities for religious rituals.
Aryan religion during the early Vedic Age was relatively unconcerned with ethics, but concerned itself more with
ritual sacrifices and the god of war.
The Upanishads can be best characterized as
the blending of Aryan and Dravidian values.
According to the teachings of the Upanishads, the highest goal of the individual soul was
to attain the state of moksha.
According to the Upanishads,
- each person is part of a larger cosmic order.
- the highest goal of the individual is to escape the cycle of birth and rebirth.
- individuals who live virtuous lives and do their duty can expect rebirth into a purer form.
- ascetism and meditation are vehicles for escaping the cycle of birth and rebirth.
In the Chandogya Upanishad, a man explained to his son how
the subtle essence of Brahman pervades everything.
According to the teachings of the Upanishads, an individual should
observe high ethical standards like honesty, self-control, and charity.
Believers in the Upanishads
- often are vegetarians.
- believe you should respect all living things, even animals and insects.
- believe that animals might be holding incarnations of unfortunate souls.
- humans should have compassion for the suffering of the souls in animals.