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  1. “like dissolves like” rule
    Strongly polar and ionic solutes tend to dissolve in polar solvents and nonpolar solutes tend to dissolve in nonpolar solvents.
  2. association
    The joining together of molecules by hydrogen bonds.
  3. boiling point elevation
    A colligative property of a solution by which the solution's boiling point is higher than that of the pure solvent.
  4. colligative properties
    A property such as vapor pressure lowering, boiling point elevation, freezing point depression, and osmotic pressure whose physical value depends only on the ratio of the numbers of moles of solute and solvent particles and not on their chemical identities.
  5. dialysis
    The passage of small molecules and ions, but not species of a colloidal size, through a semipermeable membrane
  6. dimers
    Two monomer units joined by chemical bonds or intramolecular forces.
  7. freezing point depression
    A colligative property of a liquid solution by which the freezing point of the solution is lower than that of the pure solvent
  8. heat of solution, ΔHsoln
    The energy exchanged between the system and its surroundings when one mole of a solute dissolves in a solvent to make a dilute solution.
  9. Henry's law
    Pressure–Solubility Law
  10. hydration
    The development in an aqueous solution of a cage of water molecules about ions or polar molecules of the solute.
  11. hydration energy
    The enthalpy change associated with the hydration of gaseous ions or molecules as they dissolve in water.
  12. hypertonic
    A solution that has a higher osmotic pressure than cellular fluids.
  13. hypotonic solution
    A solution that has a lower osmotic pressure than cellular fluids.
  14. ideal solution
    A hypothetical solution that would obey the vapor pressure–concentration law (Raoult's law) exactly.
  15. immiscible
    Mutually insoluble. Usually used to describe liquids that are insoluble in each other.
  16. ion pairs
    A more or less loosely associated pair of ions in a solution.
  17. isotonic solution
    A solution that has the same osmotic pressure as cellular fluids.
  18. lattice energy
    Energy released by the imaginary process in which isolated ions come together to form a crystal of an ionic compound.
  19. miscible
    Mutually soluble
  20. molal boiling point elevation constant
    The number of degrees (°C) per unit of molal concentration that a boiling point of a solution is higher than that of the pure solvent.
  21. molal concentration
    The number of moles of solute in 1000 g of solvent.
  22. molal freezing point depression constant
    The number of degrees (°C) per unit of molal concentration that a freezing point of a solution is lower than that of the pure solvent.
  23. molality
    The molal concentration.
  24. molar enthalpy of solution
    Heat of Solution
  25. nonvolatile
    Descriptive of a substance with a high boiling point, a low vapor pressure. and that does not evaporate.
  26. osmosis
    The passage of solvent molecules, but not those of solutes, through a semipermeable membrane; the limiting case of dialysis.
  27. osmotic membrane
    A membrane that allows passage of solvent, but not solute particles.
  28. osmotic pressure
    The back pressure that would have to be applied to prevent osmosis; one of the colligative properties.
  29. percentage by mass
    • (a) The number of grams of an element combined in 100 g of a compound.
    • (b) The number of grams of a substance in 100 g of a mixture or solution.
  30. Pressure-Solubility law
    The concentration of a gas dissolved in a liquid at any given temperature is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the solution.
  31. Raoult's law
    Vapor Pressure–Concentration Law
  32. solvation
    The development of a cage-like network of a solution's solvent molecules about a molecule or ion of the solute.
  33. solvation energy
    The enthalpy of the interaction of gaseous molecules or ions of solute with solvent molecules during the formation of a solution.
  34. van't Hoff factor, i
    The ratio of the observed freezing point depression to the value calculated on the assumption that the solute dissolves as un-ionized molecules.
  35. Vapor Pressure–Concentration law
    The vapor pressure of one component above a mixture of molecular compounds equals the product of its vapor pressure when pure and its mole fraction.
  36. Molarity (M)
    • mol of solute
    • L of solution

    Changes with temperature.
  37. Molality
    • mol of solute
    • kg of solvent

    Does not change with temperature
  38. Percent by Mass
    (w/w) in grams

    • mass of solute
    • mass of solution X 100%
  39. Mole Fraction (X)
    • moles of solute
    • moles of solute + moles of solvent

Card Set:
2011-01-17 20:18:59
chemistry wiley

Chemistry Chapter 12
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