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Action potential steps
- 1. Resting: the All Na and K channels are closed mince leaky gates of course.in -70
- 2. depolorizing phase: the Na channels open but the K gates are still closed. getting positive
- 3. repolorizing phase: Na channels and K channels are open. getting more negative
- 4. hyperpolorization phase: Na is blocked out but K is kept flowing making it super negative
Both Na nonactivation gates and activation gates are open and you couldnt get action potential again no matter what.
relative refractory period
If theres a high enough level you could get it to action potential again but it has to be big enough
A change in this starts a signal
travel only short distances because it uses defussion like sound (him wispering lol) ex. dendrites to soma
travel much greater distance (him saying a message then the next person says it like telephone) ex. axon hillock to axon terminals
unmyelinated fibers is very slow 1 m/s
mylinated neurons much faster and overall less energy is consumed.
Type A fibers (axons)
- largest diameters
- velocity= 268 MPH
type B fibers Axon
- smaller diameter
- velocity= 40 MPH
Type C fiber (axon)
- smallest diameter
- velocity= 2 MPH
axons that release the ACh or acetalcholine neurotransmitter
axons that release the neurotransmitter norepinephrine
- 2 different types of receptores that recieve a specific neurotransmitter
- nicotinic- skeletal muscle many different types ACh stimulatory
- muscarinic- found in the parasympathetic that slows down the hearts heart rate. AcH stimulatory and inhibitory.
- 2 types of different receptors that are stimulated by different neurotransmitters
- Alpha- stimulated by norepinephrine and epinephrine
- Beta- also the epinephrines 3 different types can be found on the cell membrane. sympathetic nervous system with heart makes the heart rate higher.
sympathetic nervous system
fight or flight response and maintains blood pressure
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