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What are the intensities of turbulance?
What are the classifications of turbulance?
- Wind shear
What type of frontal activity is likely to produce the most turbulence?
Fast moving cold front
What is the rule of thumb for local intensity of turbulance?
- Moderate: up to 300 miles downwind
- Severe: up to 150 miles downwind
- Extreme: 50 knot wind at ALT peak
What are the different durations of turbulance?
- Occasional < 1/3 of total time
- Intermittent 1/3 to 2/3 of total time
- Continuous > 2/3 of total time
Wind shear is almost always what?
Clear air turbulance (CAT)
Which one of the following may cause mechanical turbulence when air is flowing over it?
- Irregular terrain
Flying over _____ , turbulance may be more noticable then over trees or bodies of water.
The strength and magnitude of mechanical turbulance is dependent on what?
- Wind speed
- Roughness of terrain
- Stability of air
Which cloud formations are associated with mountain wave turbulence?
rotor, lenticular, & cap clouds
To avoid Mountain wave turblance fly ____ than peak, and approach mountain range at ____.
50% higher; a 45* angle
What is the T-6 turbulent air penetration speed?
Frontal turbulence would be the most severe when associated with a ______.
fast moving cold front
No turbulance in ____ front due to little or no ____.
Wind shear is a sudden change in wind speed or direction over a short distance, vertically or horizontally. Which shift if more significant?
What are the three types of wind shear turbulence?
- Jet stream
- Gusty winds
- Temp inversion
What conditions are necessary for the formation of ice on aircraft?
Freezing temperatures, visible moisture, and aircraft skin temperature below freezing
What type front produces the most significant icing conditions?
An aviation hazard associated with structural icing is that it results in ______.
a reduction of lift by changing the airfoil characteristics
Clear icing will generally be encountered between a temperature range of ______.
0° C and –10° C
Formed from small super-cooled water droplets in stratiform clouds of stable air
Consists of ice crystals formed by deposition.
Formed by large individual water droplets freezing as they strike the aircraft surface
Considered to be the most frequently encountered type of icing
What would be the effect on an aircraft which attempted to take off without removing frost that has formed during the night?
- Increase in the stall speed
- Lift and drag/ratios will be affected
Which one of the following types of clouds would you most likely be flying through if encountering clear icing?
State the evasive tactic used when wet snow or freezing rain is encountered?
Climb to colder air with wet snow and climb to warmer air with freezing rain
State the classifications used to describe icing.
What are the greatest hazards associated with induction and compressor icing?
Reduced airflow and FOD
What are the two types of engine icing?
Compressor and induction icing
When finding yourself in icing conditions, you can escape by flying into areas of
At what intensity of icing is rate of accumulation a problem if encountered for an extended period of time?
Induction ice has a high probabilty with air temperature of ____ or _____.
+10C; less and high relative humidity
Define slant range visibility.
Distance on final approach at which the runway envirnment is in sight
In what conditions is frost most likely to occur?
Clear, clam night with freezing temps.
What are the two main types of fog?
Radiation and advection fog
Total visibility over half the horizon circle or greater is ______.
Visibility is reported obscured when reduced to ____.
less than 6 miles
______ is the distance that be seen directly upward from the ground into a surface-based obscuration
What will result in the saturation of an air mass?
Rising the dew point
What three parameters must be meet for moisture to be considered fog?
- Base at or w/in 50 ft of surface
- > 20 ft thick
- Visibility < 5/8 mile
What is the only thing that can dissapate advection fog?
A wind shift
Radiation fog could be expected in areas characterized by ______.
low wind speed, and clear skies
Which type of fog produces a thicker, more persistent layer?
What phenomenon would your aircraft be flying through if experiencing a rise in oil temperatures, acrid odor (possibly from an electrical fire), airspeed fluctuations, pitted windscreens, and a bright orange glow around the engine inlets?
Volcanic ash cloud
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