Pharm II (antianginal/ Antihypertensive agents)

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  1. Name the Ca Channel inhibitors?

    What are their general effects?
    Nifedipine, Diltiazem, Verapamil

    • Smooth muscle relaxation
    • Decreases HR, Conduction, and contraction force.
  2. What is a difference between Nitrates and Ca channel Blockers?
    Nitrates-- are venous dilators

    • Ca channel Blockers--- Arterial dilators
    • (note: These can cause a reflex tachycardia)
  3. Which of the Ca channel blockers are DHP (dipine) and which are not?
    What are their effects?
    What are they used for?
    • VERAPAMIL DILTIAZEM are NON-DHP
    • - decrease HR
    • - Used in Arrythmia and angina
    • NIFEDIPINE is DHP
    • -increased HR(due to Reflex)
    • -Cause Vascular smooth muscle relaxation-- decrease afterload
    • - used in HTN and angina
  4. Name the different Dipines (DHP drugs) and their special features.
    Amlodipine ---------- no reflex tachycardia

    Nicardipine---------- Used in HTN and angina

    Nimodipine ---------- This is Cerebral vessel specific, it prevents cerebral vassospasm and ischemia

    Nifedipine----- used to treat Raynauds phenonmenon (which is caused by Vasospasm)
  5. K CHANNEL OPENERS

    What is their prominate action?
    Name one
    Smooth muscle relaxation of Vascular and Visceral tissues.

    -Nicorandil
  6. What is Ranolazine? What is it used for?

    What is Trimetazidine? What is it used for?
    It is a Na channel inhibitor. Used for treatment of chronic angina pectoris.

    • -Is a drug for angina pectoris.Trimetazidine is an anti-ischemic agent, that improves
    • myocardial glucose utilization thus decreasing its O2 dependence.
  7. Conclusions of Antianginal agents
    • -Nitrates and CCBs decrease myocardial wall tension whereas, beta blockers decrease the heart rate and
    • contractility.

    • -Nitrates and Nifedipine have the potential to
    • cause reflex tachycardia, but this effect can be prevented by concurrent administration of beta blocker.
  8. What are the Classifications of the Antihypertensives?
    • ACE inhibitors
    • Angiotensin receptor blockers
    • Renin inhibitors
    • Beta adrenergic blockers
    • Alpha adrenergic blockers
    • Central alpha 2 agonists
  9. What are the diuretics that can be used as Antihypertensive agents? Name them
    -Thiazides : Chlorothiazides, Metolazone, Indapamide.

    -High ceiling diuretics : Furesomide, Bumetanide, Ethacrynic acid

    -K sparing diuretics : Spironolactone, Triamterene, Amiloride
  10. What are the Antihypertensive agents that are Vasodilators?
    • -Calcium channel blockers :
    • - Amlodipine, Nicardipine, Nifedipine.


    -Other vasodilators: Hydralazine, Minoxidil, Diazoxide, Nitroprusside, Fenoldopam
  11. Name the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors

    What is their effect?
    Captopril, Lisinopril, Enalapril, Ramipril, Benazepril, Fosinopril

    Decreases: Arterial resistance (afterload), Venous tension (preload) and aldosterone secretion.
  12. What are the effects of Angiotension II activation?
    • -Increases sympathetic activity
    • -Increases Tubular Na/Cl reabsorption
    • -Increases Aldosterone secretion
    • -Increases arterial vasoconstriction (increases BP)
    • -Increases the pituitary release of ADH--> increases water retension
  13. What does ACE enzyme do?
    It converts Angiotensin I to Angiotensin II.

    It destroys bradykinin which is a Vasodilator
  14. What are the indications for ACE inhibitors?
    • -Congestive heart failure (CHF)
    • -Hypertension
    • -Left ventricular dysfunction
    • -Prevention of nephropathy in diabetes mellitus
  15. What are the Side effects with ACE INHIBITORS?
    CHRONIC DRY COUGH**** -- due to increased Bradykinin

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Author:
Anonymous
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60324
Filename:
Pharm II (antianginal/ Antihypertensive agents)
Updated:
2011-01-17 21:44:19
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Pharm II antianginal Antihypertensive agents
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Pharm II (antianginal/ Antihypertensive agents)
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