AP Biology Mid-Term Exam

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lap0216
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AP Biology Mid-Term Exam
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2011-01-17 17:10:22
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Biology AP Science
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This is for Ms. Kelly's AP Biology class.
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  1. From the perspective of the cell receiving the message, the three stages of cell signaling are

    a. the paracrine, local, and synaptic stages.
    b. signal reception, signal transduction, and cellular response.
    c. signal reception, nucleus disintegration, and new cell generation.
    d. the alpha, beta, and gamma stages. e. signal reception, cellular response, and cell division.
    B
  2. Which description below is not a way that transposable elements can contribute to genome evolution?

    a. by introducing homologous sequences into various locations within the genome, allowing unequal crossing over to occur during meiosis
    b. by moving genes to new chromosomal locations
    c. by moving exons from one gene to another, creating proteins with novel combinations of exons
    d. by integrating into genes and disrupting their function
    e. All the choices describe how transposable elements can contribute to genome evolution.
    E
  3. Which of the following is least related to the other items?

    a. snRNP
    b. triplet code
    c. wobble
    d. tRNA
    e. anticodon
    A

  4. In the late 1950s, Meselson and Stahl grew bacteria in a medium containing "heavy" nitrogen (15N) and then transferred them to a medium containing 14N. Which of the results in the figure above would be expected after one DNA replication in the presence of 14N?

    a. A
    b. B
    c. C
    d. D
    e. E
    D
  5. A eukaryotic cell lacking telomerase would

    a. have a high probability of becoming cancerous.
    b. produce Okazaki fragments.
    c. be unable to repair thymine dimers.
    d. undergo a reduction in chromosome length.
    e. be highly sensitive to sunlight.
    D
  6. For a science fair project, two students decided to repeat the Hershey and Chase experiment, with modifications. They decided to label the nitrogen of the DNA, rather than the phosphate. They reasoned that each nucleotide has only one phosphate and two to five nitrogens. Thus, labeling the nitrogens would provide a stronger signal than labeling the phosphates. Why won't this experiment work?

    a. There is no radioactive isotope of nitrogen.
    b. Radioactive nitrogen has a half-life of 100,000 years, and the material would be too dangerous for too long.
    c. Meselson and Stahl already did this experiment.
    d. Although there are more nitrogens in a nucleotide, labeled phosphates actually have 16 extra neutrons; therefore, they are more radioactive.
    e. Amino acids (and thus proteins) also have nitrogen atoms; thus, the radioactivity would not distinguish between DNA and proteins.
    E
  7. The genetic code is essentially the same for all organisms. From this, one can logically assume all of the following except

    a. a gene from an organism could theoretically be expressed by any other organism.
    b. all organisms have a common ancestor.
    c. DNA was the first genetic material.
    d. the same codons in different organisms usually translate into the same amino acids.
    e. different organisms have the same number of different types of amino acids.
    C
  8. Refer to the choices to answer the following question.

    A. photosynthesis
    B. respiration
    C. both photosynthesis and respiration
    D. neither photosynthesis nor respiration

    reduction of oxygen which forms water

    a. A
    b. B
    c. C
    d. D
    B
  9. Refer to the choices to answer the following question.

    A. photosynthesis
    B. respiration
    C. both photosynthesis and respiration
    D. neither photosynthesis nor respiration

    synthesis of ATP by the chemiosmotic mechanism

    a. A
    b. B
    c. C
    d. D
    C
  10. Use the following answers for the following question.

    A. transduction
    B. transposition
    C. translation
    D. transformation
    E. conjugation

    External DNA is assimilated by a cell.

    a. A
    b. B
    c. C
    d. D
    e. E
    D
  11. Use the following answers for the following question.

    A. transduction
    B. transposition
    C. translation
    D. transformation
    E. conjugation

    A plasmid is exchanged between bacteria through a pilus.

    a. A
    b. B
    c. C
    d. D
    e. E
    E
  12. Use the following answers for the following question.

    A. transduction
    B. transposition
    C. translation
    D. transformation
    E. conjugation

    DNA is transferred from one bacterium to another by a virus.

    a. A
    b. B
    c. C
    d. D
    e. E
    A
  13. Use the terms below to answer the following question.

    A. transposons
    B. simple sequence DNA
    C. multigene family
    D. methylated DNA
    E. pseudogenes

    -globins and B-globins are classic examples of which type of DNA?

    a. A
    b. B
    c. C
    d. D
    e. E
    C
  14. Use the terms below to answer the following question.

    A. transposons
    B. simple sequence DNA
    C. multigene family
    D. methylated DNA
    E. pseudogenes

    This is most commonly found in inactivated DNA regions.

    a. A
    b. B
    c. C
    d. D
    e. E
    D
  15. According to the fluid mosaic model of cell membranes, which of the following is a true statement about membrane phospholipids?

    a. They can move laterally along the plane of the membrane.
    b. They frequently flip-flop from one side of the membrane to the other.
    c. They occur in an uninterrupted bilayer, with membrane proteins restricted to the surface of the membrane.
    d. They are free to depart from the membrane and dissolve in the surrounding solution.
    e. They have hydrophilic tails in the interior of the membrane.
    A
  16. Which of the following is true for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene expression?

    a. After transcription, a 3' poly-A tail and a 5' cap are added to mRNA.
    b. Translation of mRNA can begin before transcription is complete.
    c. RNA polymerase binds to the promoter region to begin transcription.
    d. mRNA is synthesized in the 3' ? 5' direction.
    e. The mRNA transcript is the exact complement of the gene from which it was copied.
    A
  17. It became apparent to Watson and Crick after completion of their model that the DNA molecule could carry a vast amount of hereditary information in its

    a. sequence of bases.
    b. phosphate-sugar backbones.
    c. complementary pairing of bases.
    d. side groups of nitrogenous bases.
    e. different five-carbon sugars.
    A
  18. What is the function of reverse transcriptase in retroviruses?

    a. It hydrolyzes the host cell's DNA.
    b. It uses viral RNA as a template for DNA synthesis.
    c. It converts host cell RNA into viral DNA.
    d. It translates viral RNA into proteins.
    e. It uses viral RNA as a template for making complementary RNA strands.
    B
  19. A part of an mRNA molecule with the following sequence is being read by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG 3' (mRNA). The following activated transfer RNA molecules (with their anticodons shown in the 3' to 5' direction) are available. Two of them can correctly match the mRNA so that a dipeptide can form.

    The dipeptide that will form will be

    a. cysteine-alanine.
    b. proline-threonine.
    c. glycine-cysteine.
    d. alanine-alanine.
    e. threonine-glycine.
    B
  20. Which term most precisely describes the cellular process of breaking down large molecules into smaller ones?

    a. catalysis
    b. metabolism
    c. anabolism
    d. dehydration
    e. catabolism
    E
  21. Which of the following best describes the complete sequence of steps occurring during every cycle of PCR?

    1. The primers hybridize to the target DNA.
    2. The mixture is heated to a high temperature to denature the double stranded target DNA.
    3. Fresh DNA polymerase is added.
    4. DNA polymerase extends the primers to make a copy of the target DNA.

    a. 2, 1, 4
    b. 1, 3, 2, 4
    c. 3, 4, 1, 2
    d. 3, 4, 2
    e. 2, 3, 4
    A
  22. After mixing a heat-killed, phosphorescent strain of bacteria with a living non-phosphorescent strain, you discover that some of the living cells are now phosphorescent. The best evidence that the ability to fluoresce is a heritable trait would be an observation that

    a. DNA passed from the heat-killed strain to the living strain.
    b. protein passed from the heat-killed strain to the living strain.
    c. the phosphorescence in the living strain is especially bright.
    d. descendants of the living cells are also phosphorescent.
    e. both DNA and protein passed from the heat-killed strain to the living strain.
    D
  23. ____ is used to make complementary DNA (cDNA) from RNA

    A. restriction enzymes
    B. gene cloning
    C. DNA ligase
    D. gel electrophoresis
    E. reverse transcriptase
    E
  24. ____ separates molecules by movement due to size and electrical charge

    A. restriction enzymes
    B. gene cloning
    C. DNA ligase
    D. gel electrophoresis
    E. reverse transcriptase
    D
  25. ____ produces multiple identical copies of a gene for basic research or for large-scale production of a gene product

    A. restriction enzymes
    B. gene cloning
    C. DNA ligase
    D. gel electrophoresis
    E. reverse transcriptase
    B
  26. ____ cuts DNA molecules at specific locations

    A. restriction enzymes
    B. gene cloning
    C. DNA ligase
    D. gel electrophoresis
    E. reverse transcriptase
    A
  27. ____ seals the sticky ends of restriction fragments to make recombinant DNA

    A. restriction enzymes
    B. gene cloning
    C. DNA ligase
    D. gel electrophoresis
    E. reverse transcriptase
    C
  28. What is the enzymatic function of restriction enzymes?

    a. to add new nucleotides to the growing strand of DNA
    b. to join nucleotides during replication
    c. to join nucleotides during transcription
    d. to cleave nucleic acids at specific sites
    e. to repair breaks in sugar-phosphate backbones
    D
  29. Which of the following statements is false when comparing prokaryotes with eukaryotes?

    a. The prokaryotic chromosome is circular, whereas eukaryotic chromosomes are linear.
    b. Prokaryotic chromosomes have a single origin of replication, whereas eukaryotic chromosomes have many.
    c. The rate of elongation during DNA replication is higher in prokaryotes than in eukaryotes.
    d. Prokaryotes produce Okazaki fragments during DNA replication, but eukaryotes do not.
    e. Eukaryotes have telomeres, and prokaryotes do not.
    D
  30. Where does glycolysis takes place?

    a. mitochondrial matrix
    b. mitochondrial outer membrane
    c. mitochondrial inner membrane
    d. mitochondrial intermembrane space
    e. cytosol
    E
  31. RNA polymerase and DNA polymerase differ in that

    a. RNA polymerase uses RNA as a template, and DNA polymerase uses a DNA template.
    b. RNA polymerase binds to single-stranded DNA, and DNA polymerase binds to double-stranded DNA.
    c. RNA polymerase is much more accurate than DNA polymerase.
    d. RNA polymerase can initiate RNA synthesis, but DNA polymerase requires a primer to initiate DNA synthesis.
    e. RNA polymerase does not need to separate the two strands of DNA in order to synthesize an RNA copy, whereas DNA polymerase must unwind the double helix before it can replicate the DNA.
    D
  32. The process of transduction usually begins

    a. when the chemical signal is released from the alpha cell.
    b. when the signal molecule changes the receptor protein in some way.
    c. after the target cell divides.
    d. after the third stage of cell signaling is completed.
    e. when the hormone is released from the gland into the blood.
    B
  33. If a cell were unable to produce histone proteins, which of the following would be expected to occur?

    a. There would be an increase in the amount of "satellite" DNA produced during centrifugation.
    b. The cell's DNA couldn't be packed into its nucleus.
    c. Spindle fibers would not form during prophase.
    d. Amplification of other genes would compensate for the lack of histones.
    e. Pseudogenes would be transcribed to compensate for the decreased protein in the cell.
    B
  34. Viruses are referred to as obligate parasites because

    a. they cannot reproduce outside of a host cell.
    b. viral DNA always inserts itself into host DNA.
    c. they invariably kill any cell they infect.
    d. they can incorporate nucleic acids from other viruses.
    e. they must use enzymes encoded by the virus itself.
    A
  35. All of the following molecules are part of the cell membrane except

    a. lipids.
    b. nucleic acids.
    c. proteins.
    d. phosphate groups.
    e. steroids.
    B
  36. Which of the following is characteristic of the lytic cycle?

    a. Many bacterial cells containing viral DNA are produced.
    b. Viral DNA is incorporated into the host genome.
    c. The viral genome replicates without destroying the host.
    d. A large number of phages are released at a time.
    e. The virus-host relationship usually lasts for generations.
    D
  37. Which of the following represents a similarity between RNA and DNA?

    a. Both are double-stranded.
    b. the presence of uracil
    c. the presence of an OH group on the 2' carbon of the sugar
    d. nucleotides consisting of a phosphate, sugar, and nitrogenous base
    e. Both are found exclusively in the nucleus
    D
  38. What is the most logical sequence of steps for splicing foreign DNA into a plasmid and inserting the plasmid into a bacterium?
    I. Transform bacteria with recombinant DNA molecule.
    II. Cut the plasmid DNA using restriction enzymes.
    III. Extract plasmid DNA from bacterial cells.
    IV. Hydrogen-bond the plasmid DNA to nonplasmid DNA fragments.
    V. Use ligase to seal plasmid DNA to nonplasmid DNA.

    a. I, II, IV, III, V
    b. II, III, V, IV, I
    c. III, II, IV, V, I
    d. III, IV, V, I, II
    e. IV, V, I, II, III
    C
  39. Which of the following statements is true?

    a. Heterochromatin is composed of DNA, whereas euchromatin is made of DNA and RNA.
    b. Both heterochromatin and euchromatin are found in the cytoplasm.
    c. Heterochromatin is highly condensed, whereas euchromatin is less compact.
    d. Euchromatin is not transcribed, whereas heterochromatin is transcribed.
    e. Only euchromatin is visible under the light microscope.
    C
  40. Muscle cells and nerve cells in one species of animal owe their differences in structure to

    a. having different genes.
    b. having different chromosomes.
    c. using different genetic codes.
    d. differential gene expression.
    e. having unique ribosomes.
    D

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