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how deep can superficial heat penetrated?
What does superficial heat do?
- increases metabolic rate of cellular processes
- enhances inflammatory response
- inhibits sympathetic nerve stimulation, causing vasodialation
Why is it good to get the skin warm with superficial heating?
increases blood flow and nerve endings are there so can cut out pain sensation for temporary amount of time
what are some of the physiological effects of superficial heat
- increase metabolism (direct)
- increase blood flow (direct and reflex)
- increase elasticity (direct)
- produces relaxation (reflex)
- decreases muscle strength (reflex)
- decreases pain (reflex)
what are the therapeutic benefits of superficial heat
- decreased pain
- increased range of motion
- increased healing rate
name some of the ways a heat is transferred
what is convection
convection is circulation of the media such as air or water
what is conduction
transfer heat from one surface to another through direct contact
what is an example of radiation
heat absorbed from the sun
when using a hotpack, what type of heat transfer is being used
radiation and conduction (slow release of thermal energy)
what is the temperature of the water in the hydrocollator?
how long does a typical hotpack treatment last
about 30 min.
how many layers should be used on a hotpack
six layers of towels
explain how to apply it hotpack
- inspect skin
- remove pack from tank with tongs
- insulate pack with covers/towels
- protect clothes/sheets from moisture
- leave pack on for 20 – 30 min.
- check skin at the end
after applying a hot pack, you should always check the skin for capillary refill. What does it mean if you check the capillary fill and the skin remains red?
it means you burnt the patient and you need to tell them.
Be sure to ask if the skin is itchy
What don't you want to heat with a hot pack?
- large scars
- poison ivy
how long does a typical paraffin bath treatment lasts?
10 to 15 min.
what is the temperature of a paraffin bath
What type of heat transfer is a paraffin bath?
how do you perform a paraffin bath treatment – name the steps
- inspect and wash skin, no jewelry
- dip body part 6 – 12 times
- Place body part in bag, wrap in towel
- peel off wax after 10 min.
- discard or return wax to bath
true or false – when performing a paraffin Bath treatment, there will be a small space between the hand and the wax
when performing a paraffin bath treatment, the patient may say "the wax isn't hot anymore", when in reality it still is, explain this
the Thermo receptors in the skin become accustomed the sensory input ( steady-state)
what are the two methods of performing a paraffin bath treatment
- dip – remove – wrap
- dip – remove – leave
why doesn't paraffin at 130°F burn the skin
what method of heat transfer is used when performing an infrared lamp treatment
true or false – infra-red lamps have a lightbulb that is 500 W
why do infra-red lamps have red light bulbs
to soften the glare of the lamps
explain the technique of using infrared lamps
- inspect skin
- lamp is at 90° and 45 – 60 cm away
- avoid directing into eyes
- treatment last 15 to 30 min.
- check skin for blanching
- remove light and inspect skin
when performing an infrared lamp treatment, what happens if you decrease the distance from the body and the lamp by one half
the energy/heat absorbed by the body will quadruple
fluidotherapy involves what type of heat transfer
- conduction (touch the skin)
- convection (move past the skin)
- radiation (coil at bottom)
true or false – you can't use fluidotherapy if you have an open wound
Yes you can but the wound must be covered
how hot does fluidotherapy get
102 – 118°F
What is fluidotherapy (general)?
heated air blowing into cellulose particles (corn cob particles)
explain the treatment techniques for fluidotherapy
- no jewelry, inspect skin
- put body part in sleeve and seal
- adjust agitation and temperature levels
- treat for 20 min.
what are the contraindications to superficial heat
- loss of sensation – numbness of skin
- inadequate blood flow – peripheral vascular disease (smokers, diabetics)
- acute inflammation (it will increase inflammation)
- over malignancy (can send cancer cells out)
- patient unresponsive or confused
true or false – it is okay to use superficial heat for acute pain
name some precautions for superficial heat
- edema: chronic inflammation is okay
- pregnancy: don't go over abdomen
- open wound: be cautious of infection
- cardiac insufficiency
- superficial ointments: if they open the pores they can make heat treatments worse