quiz #1- overview first few lectures

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quiz #1- overview first few lectures
2011-01-30 11:46:47

cranial nerves, brain stem, spinal cord overview
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  1. What level is the posterior intermediate sulcus?
    T6-T7 and above
  2. What are the three paired regions, or funiculi of the white matter?
    lateral funiculus (between anterior lateral and posterior lateral sulci)

    posterior funiculus (between posterior median and posterior lateral sulci)

    anterior funiculus (between anterior median fissure and anterior lateral sulci)
  3. What is recognized at the T1-L2/L3 level?
    • Intermediolateral Cell Column- the later gray horn
    • contains sympathetic cells (?)
  4. What are the three main functions of the brainstem?
    Relay info between the cerebrum and spinal cord

    integrate information

    regulate vital functions (respiration, HR, consciousness, & arousal)
  5. What is the groove between the pons and medulla?
    bulbopontine sulcus (pontomedullary junction)
  6. List components of the ventral brainstem:
    • cerebral peduncles
    • interpeduncular fossa
    • basilar pons
    • pyramids
    • olives
    • anterior median fissure
    • olivary sulci (pre and post olivary)
  7. List components of the dorsal brainstem:
    • colliculi & brachi
    • cerebellar peduncles (superior, middle, & inferior)
    • rhomboid fossa (hypoglossal trigo and vagal trigo within fossa)
    • tubercula (gracilis and cuneatus)
  8. Cranial Nerves associated with smell:
    I (olfactory)
  9. Cranial nerves associated with vision and eye movements:
    • II (optic)
    • III (oculomotor)
    • IV (trochlear)
    • V (trigeminal)
    • VI (abducens)
    • VII (facial)
  10. Cranial nerves associated with taste:
    • VII (facial)
    • IX (glossopharyngeal)
    • X (vagus)
  11. Cranial nerves that are pure motor nerves:
    • III (oculomotor)
    • IV (trochlear)
    • VI (abducens)
    • XI (accesory)
    • XII (hypoglossal)
  12. Cranial nerves that are pure sensory nerves:
    • I (olfactory)
    • II (optic)
    • VIII (vestibulocochlear)
  13. Cranial nerves that are mixed- motor and sensory:
    • V (trigeminal)
    • VII (facial)
    • IX (glossopharyngeal)
    • X (vagus)
  14. Cranial nerves with parasympathetic functions:
    • III (oculomotor)
    • VII (facial)
    • IX (glossopharyngeal)
    • X (vagus)
  15. What are the functions of the cerebellum?
    • muscle tone regulation
    • coordinated movement
    • postural control
    • motor learning
  16. The thalmus, hypothalmus, epithalamus and subthalmus are part of what region of the brain?
    Diencephalon: which is a paired region with right and left side... Epithalamus is the only single one
  17. The telencephalon is considered to be what:
    the "brain"
  18. Frontal lobe is what part of the brain?
    Rostral to central sulcus
  19. Parietal lobe is what part of brain?
    Central sulcus to imaginary line from lateral or sylvian fissure
  20. What is formed by imaginary line from parietooccipital sulcus and the preoccipital notch at the back of the brain?
    Occipital Lobe
  21. What is the temporal lobe formed by?
    lateral fissure to imaginary line between parieoccipital sulcus and preoccipital notch
  22. What and where is the neuraxis?
    It's the longitudinal axis in the nervous system which bends at the junction of the midbrain and the diencephalon.
  23. At birth, where does the spinal cord end in an infant compared to where it ends in an adult?
    At birth- L2-L3.

    An adult- L1 disc.
  24. What can an injury to the lower lumbar spine (like spondylolistheis) cause damage to?
    The peripheral nervous system because it would effect the cauda equina. The adult's spinal cord ends at L1 so the central nervous system would not be damaged.
  25. What is the difference between conus medullaris and cauda equina in the spinal region?
    Conus medullaris refers to the end of the spinal cord where it narrows. Cauda equina refers to the spinal roots that continue down the vertebral canal.
  26. What are the three layers of the meninges?
    Dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater.

    (subarachnoid space is between arachnoid and the pia)
  27. What is the purpose of the coccygeal ligament (filum terminale)?
    to anchor the spinal cord caudally (so you don't get a spinal cord wedgie)
  28. What is the difference between myotomes and dermatomes?
    Dermatomes: part of the skin supplied by the dorsal root level

    Myotomes: muscle groups that are supplied by the ventral root level
  29. What is the only space with a true epidural (space outside of the dura)?
    the vertebral canal
  30. Explain the two main differences bettwen efferent and afferent nerves
    Afferent nerves: usually refer to sensory nerves going toward a refernce point

    Efferent nerves: usually refer motor nerves going away from a reference point
  31. Where is the site to withdrawl CSF?
    the lumbar cistern- the subarachnoid space between the end of hte spinal cord and the end of the dura
  32. Describe tonsil herniation:
    pressure from the tonsils push down through the foramen magnum putting pressure on the brainstem... can depress vital functions.
  33. What do the preolivary sulcus and the post olivary sulcus come together to form?
    anterior lateral sulcus
  34. True or False: The cerebllar peduncles connect the brainstem with the cerebrum

    The superior, middle, and inferior aspects of the CEREBELLAR peduncles connect to the midbrain, pons and medulla
  35. What connects the midbrain to the thalamus?
    The brachia of the superior and inferior colliculus
  36. What do the cerebral peduncles connect?
    the brainstem with the cerebrum
  37. What lobes form the operculum?
    Parietal, frontal, and Temporal
  38. What two areas make up the Brocas area which is in charge of what?
    pars triangularis and pars opercularis

    if this spot is damaged usually have difficulty generating speech, they can understand it but can't speak it
  39. What two portions of the brain make up the infraparietal lobe and what does it deal with?
    Supramarginal gyrus and Angular gyrus

    deals with comprehension of language- can speak, but has nonsensible language (aka Wernicke's area)
  40. Name the gyri surrounding the corpus callosum:
    Cingulate gyrus
  41. Name the 4 parts of the Diencephalon:
    thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, subthalamus
  42. The purpose of the thalamus is what?
    It relays information- sensory, motor, limbic, memory, arousal, and associative functions
  43. What is the purpose of the hypothalamus?
    ANS, endocrine, temperature, feeding, and limbic regulation (species preservation)

    essential for survival
  44. What part of the dienchephalon controls circadian cylces and endocrine regualtion?
  45. What is the purpose of the subthalamus?
    motor circuitry- regulate movement
  46. Name the sulcus that divides the occipital lobe:
    Calcarine Sulcus
  47. Name the parts of the corpus striatum (aka neo-striatum)
    caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus
  48. What makes up the lentiform nucleus?
    putamen (outer region) and globus pallidus (deeper region)
  49. Follow the flow of the Cerebral Spinal Fluid
    lateral ventricle--> interventricular foramen --> 3rd ventricle --> cerebral aquaduct --> 4th ventricle --> cistern (subarachnoid space) --> venous sinuses
  50. Name the tissue that divides the cranial cavity into an upper and lower portion
    Tentorium Cerebelli

    ---divided into supra- and infra- tentorial region
  51. Where does the Middle Cerebral Artery generally supply blood to?
    passes through the lateral fissure and supplies blood to occipital, suboccipital, frontal, and parietal
  52. Where does the Anterior cerebral artery supply blood?
    median and superior region
  53. What is the idea behind the Circle of Willis?
    If the basilar or vertebral arteries get blocked, blood can still get through on the other side
  54. Where does the Posterior Cerebral Artery supply blood?
    the occipital region and a little bit superior
  55. Name the number, function, and origin of the Olfactory nerve:
    • I
    • smell- pure sensory
    • from forebrain
  56. Name the number, function, and origin of the optic nerve:
    • II
    • vision- purely sensory
    • from optic chiasm on forebrain
  57. Name the number, function, and origin of the oculomotor nerve:
    • III
    • muscles of the eye- motor and parasympathetic
    • from interpeduncular fossa
  58. Name the number, function, and origin of the trochlear nerve:
    • IV
    • eye movemnt- purely motor
    • emerges from the dorsal surface
  59. Name the number, function, and origin of the Trigeminal nerve:
    • V
    • face sensation and mastication- mixed nerve
    • from basis of pons
  60. Name the number, function, and origin of the Abducens nerve:
    • VI
    • eye movement- purely motor
    • from bulbopontine sulcus
  61. Name the number, function, and origin of the Facial nerve:
    • VII
    • taste, swallowing, salvation- parasympathetic & mixed
    • from bulbopontine sulcus
  62. Name the number, function, and origin of the Vestibulocochlear nerve:
    • VIII
    • hearing and balance- pure sensory
    • from bulbopontine sulcus
  63. Name the number, function, and origin of the Glossopharyngeal nerve:
    • IX
    • taste, swallowing, salvation- mixed & parasympathetic nerve
    • from post-olivary sulcus
  64. Name the number, function, and origin of the Vagus Nerve:
    • X
    • taste, viscera, swallowing- mixed & parasympathetic nerve
    • from post-olicary sulcus
  65. Name the number, function, and origin of the Accessory Nerve:
    • XI
    • SCM and trap- purely motor
    • from post olivary sulcus
  66. Name the number, function, and origin of the Hypoglossal Nerve:
    • XII
    • tongue movements- purely motor
    • from the pre-olivary sulcus
  67. Middle and inferior cerebellar peduncles carry...
    Afferent: from brainstem to cerebellum
  68. Superior cerebellar peduncles carry..
    Efferent: away from cerebellum to brainstem
  69. The pre-olivary sulcus and post-olivary sulcus come together to form:
    anterior lateral sulcus
  70. What splits the pons and medulla dorsally?
    Stria medullaris
  71. TRUE OR FALSE: The hypoglossal trigone lies inferior to the vagal trigone in the rhomboid fossa.
    • False
    • hypoglossal trigone lies superior to the vagal trigone
  72. The vestibular artery turns into the basilar artery at what level?
    the level of the pons
  73. The basilar artery terminates as the?
    Posterior Cerebral Artery
  74. The Internal Carotid Artery flows into:
    Anterior and Middle Cerebral Artery
  75. What does the tentorium cerebelli do?
    • divides the cranial cavity into upper and lower
    • supra- and infra- tentorial regions
  76. What forms the basal ganglia?
    • Claudate nucleus
    • putamen
    • globus pallidus
    • claustrum
  77. What is the name of the capsule that runs between the claudate nucleus, the thalamus, and the lenitform nuclei?
    internal capsule
  78. In the PNS cell bodies lie in the:
    basal gangli (which contain pseudo-unipolar cells)
  79. In the CNS cell bodies lie in:
    nucleus or cortex
  80. What is the only part of the CNS that contains basal gangli?
    Deep Telencephalon
  81. Where does the spinal cord enlarge?
    C5-T1 and L2-S3 (where the plexi are)