Population of 50,000.
30ft thick walls.
Big city that the Ottomans conquered.
Located on a peninsula.
These communities were allowed to follow their own religion and not take on the muslim religion.
Ruled for 46 years.
Conquered most areas for the Ottomans.
Best Ottoman ruler.
Suleiman the Lawgiver
People who are part of an elite force of soldiers who belong to the Ottoman empire.
Safavids expanded their territory into here.
Big trading area.
Part of the Shi'i sect of Islam.
Believed they were sent from Muhammad
Another empire, main focus was building a powerful army.
Started ruling at the age of 12.
Took over most of Iran in 2 years.
Started with Shah Abbas.
A good time in Safavid history.
Strong armies were made from Ottomam, Persian, and Arab armies.
Nomads who took over the Indian subcontinent in the 16th century and started a powerful empire there.
Strong ruler, known as "the great one," blended cultures well.
A beautiful tomb located in Agra, India that was built by the Mughal emperor, Shah Jhahan for his wife.
Tore down the Mughal empire. Put father in prison and started wars that led to two million deaths from famine. He used fundings and was not tollerant.
This movement was a 16th century movement aimed at reforming the beliefs and practices of the Catholic Church.
Starter of the Lutheran religion.
Was excommunicated from the Catholic Church.
Posted the 95 thesis.
A thing to buy that people believed would forgive sins of yourself and/or the dead. Basically a money maker for the church.
To be banished or exciled from the church.
Group of people who broke off from the Catholic church.
Followers of Martin Luther.
A law Charles and the German Prince created stating that each German state's ruler decided it's own religion.
Peace of Augsburg
To set aside a rule until there is proof.
Has to do with marriage.
He wanted a divorce so he broke off from the Catholic Church.
This made the English king the head of the church, not the Pope.
Act of Supremacy
The official church of England that Queen Elizabeth was originally head of.
Head of the Anglican Church, King Henry VIII daughter.
The belief that God chooses only a few to go to heaven and has known since the beginning of time.
Followers of John Calvin. Believe in Predestination.
A government controlled by religious leaders.
A way to get Catholics to remain loyal to Catholicism. Strong reformer was Ignatius of Loyola.
Counter Reformation/ Catholic Reformation
Followers of Ignatius of Loyola. They founded good schools in Europe, taught classical studies and theology. Converted non-christians to Catholicism.
*Marquetee was founded by this group.
Where Catholic bishops and cardinals meet to agree on things.
Council of Trent
A king or queen that rules with complete power.
A belief held by the Absolute Monarch that think they are put on the thrown by God.
Divine Right of Kings
Large fleet of ships sent to England from Spain in 1588 (to take over.)
Place where kings of France stayed from 1682-1790. Built for Louis XIV.
*Home of the Hallway of Mirrors
Palace of Versailles
Getting ideas from the West and bringing them to an aread that is not accustomed to it yet.
A type of government where laws limit some power and they answer to parliment.
Fought wars, kept a strong military, took other groups down who questioned his power. He is from Spain.
When the cardinal died, he took over his power. Rose taxes, self centered, known as the Sun King.
Supported rights for women, reduced power of great landowners, built a lot of buildings, one of Russia's greatest reformers.
Peter the Great
He took the thrown from his father when he died.
To get money, he imposed all kinds of fees on the english people. Eventually was hung.
The period roughly between 1200 and 1500 during whyich the foundations of modern science were laid.
A belief that everything revolves around the Earth.
A believe that everything revolves around the sun.
Came up with the theory that the solar system revolves around the sun. Galileo got his ideas from him.
Used Copernius's theory and proved it right.
An English politician and writer who urged scientists to use the experimental method.
Francis Bacon urged scientists to use this. Basically says to observe and get information and then form a conclussion using that info.
A French philosopher who believed in using mathematics and logic to arrive at truth.
Came up with the laws of motion.
A Belgion anatomist and physician who dissected the human body and made descriptions.
An English doctor who studied the circulatory system.
A British physician who discovered and made the first vaccine. His work influenced others to find vaccines.
A Dutch scientist who improved the microscope and was the first to observe human cells.
Anton van Leewenhoek
The first scientist to perform controlled experiments concerning procedure, apparatus, and observations.
Take observations and facts => look at details and facts to come to a conclusion.
Take an idea you have and prove it.
A time period that means rebirth and started in northern Italy (1300.) A time of art and learning.
Concern for worldly matters and live in the present, not the future, enjoying luxury and life and caring less about spiritual beliefs.
Focus on/celebration of human accomplishments less religion.
Man who is charming, witty, well educated. He can dance, sing, play music, and write poetry.
A sponsor who gives money to the arts in support.
He inventedthe printing press.
Famous for sculptures such as David. And painted the ceiling of the sistine chapel.
Painted the Mona Lisa, invented machines of war. he was a Renaissance Man and developed the 7 ways of thinking.
Leonardo da Vinci
Made realistic scultures that looked like natural poses and expressions. Showed personality in art and used the perspective technique.
Younger than Leonardo and Michelangelo. He learned by studying their work.
Language of a time and place
Wrote the Prince which was about how a priace needs to act in order to be successful even if it's not moraly right.
Best playwriter of all time, famous for writing Romeo and Juliet
a technique that created 3D looking art, real looking art
An era when writers and Philosophers wanted to free or "enlighten" people from ignorance and "unnatural" ways of thinking.
Thought people were generally evil. Wrote the Leviathan which defended the absolute power of kings and queens around the 1600's. Believe government was necessary to keep human beings in order.
People give up their rights to a strong leader in exchange for peace and order. An agreement.
Thought people want to do what is right. Around in the 1600's. Wrote Two Treaties of Government which agreed with Hobbes on state of nature but disagreed with him on rights and the social contract.
* 3 natural rights
Life, Liberty, and Property
Social critics and thinkers during the Enlightenment.
Believed in freedom for people and 3 branches of government/seperation of power.
Baron de Montesquieu
Believed in human nature, art, and science. Society corrupts people.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Believed in human nature and criminal defense. Against cruel punishment.
Fought for women's rights.
Social gatherings held by women where philosophers, writers, artists, etc. talk about ideas and watch performances.
Published the first encyclopedia.
Believed in reason and freedom of speech, religion, and ideas.
An artistic and musical style that was complex and ornate.
An artistic style that was simple, smooth, and elegant.
Musical composers from the classical period.
Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven
Monarchs that took new ideas and applied them to their kingdom to represent more of the Enlightenment Spirit.