quiz #1 –diagnostic test of the nervous system.txt

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quiz #1 –diagnostic test of the nervous system.txt
2011-02-19 13:32:56
clinical neurology

clinical neurology
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  1. When a lumbar puncture is performed cerebral spinal fluid is removed from what layer of the meninges?
    subarachnoid space
  2. lumbar punctures are used to diagnose a variety of conditions. Name some of those conditions
    meningitis, hemorrhage, inflammatory disorders
  3. during a lumbar puncture dyes are used to find......?
    abnormal structures
  4. lumbar punctures are also used to administer______ or _________
    medications or contrast media
  5. when performing a lumbar puncture how is the patient positioned
    in a lateral decubitus position or seated

    The lumbar spine is maximally flexed
  6. where does the needle entered during a lumbar puncture?
    L3 – L4
  7. lumbar puncture tests can be used for diagnostic purposes by removing ______ ________ ________?
    cerebral spinal fluid

    use to find cellular changes within the fluid
  8. lumbar punctures can be used to administer medications. When might this be useful?
    during child birth, surgery, etc.
  9. x-rays are useful when trying to observe?
    abnormalities of bone, fractures of the skull, vertebrae and abnormal calcification
  10. what does CT stand for?
    computerized tomography
  11. CT scans are useful for diagnosing?
    strokes, tumors, trauma, dementia, subarachnoid hemorrhage
  12. What are the advantages of a CT scan?
    precise, sensitive, and fast
  13. CT scans are used for viewing?
    larger problems
  14. what does MRI stand for?
    magnetic resonance imaging
  15. MRI are used to diagnose?
    stroke, tumor, dementia, multiple sclerosis, infections
  16. MRIs provide a high contrast of____ _____.
    soft tissue
  17. MRIs are used to provide images of ________problems.
  18. usually diagnostic testing is performed in a certain order. What is that order?
    • 1- X – Ray– usually the cheapest
    • 2- CT scan
    • 3- MRI– usually the last choice because they can last an hour, expensive, and can be problematic for patients with claustrophobia
  19. MRI can provide imaging to within ___ mm
  20. MRIs create a...?
    magnetic field
  21. true or false – CT scans involve radiation
  22. true or false – MRI is good for providing images for acute conditions
    • false – MRIs are usually used for the detection of slow degenerative diseases.
    • CT scans can usually provide imaging for acute conditions better than MRI.
  23. true or false – CT scans are fast and easy for patients
  24. true or false – CT scans are good for soft tissue and bone injury
  25. true or false – MRIs have a significantly high level of radiation
    false – MRIs are use with magnets and therefore do not produce radiation. MRIs can be done serially
  26. true or false – MRI can be performed quickly and is usually easy for the patient to endure.
    false – MRI is a slow process and can be difficult for patients with claustrophobia. The process can last up to one hour.
  27. described positron emission tomography
    it is a type of imaging in which tracers are injected in the body in order to observe and detect metabolic rate within tissue.
  28. positron emission tomography is used to detect?
    tumors, dementia, seizure sites
  29. describe arteriography
    is a procedure that uses a radiopaque dye to outline circulation
  30. arteriography are used to detect?
    arterial and venous malformation, space occupying lesions and occlusions
  31. what is the risk when performing a arteriography?
    the procedure may cause a stroke
  32. positron emission tomography

    The red parts of the image indicate?
    high levels of activity
  33. positron emission tomography

    The blue parts of the image indicate
    low levels of activity
  34. positron emission tomography

    The dye is composed of?
    radioactive sugar
  35. describe myelogram?
    a radiopaque dye is injected into the subarachnoid space.
  36. in medical terminology myelo– means?
    spinal cord
  37. myelogram is used to detect?
    spinal tumors, herniated disc, exostoses, changes in spinal canal.
  38. what is electromyography?
    electrical reading of muscles
  39. true or false – electromyography is a noninvasive procedure
    both true and false – they can be invasive through needle punctures and it can be noninvasive by using surface electrodes
  40. electromyographs are used for the detection of?
    denervation and stages of recovery

    Muscle disease

    Used to measure motor nerve conduction velocity
  41. what is a nerve conduction velocity
    it is the speed at which peripheral nerves conduct action potentials
  42. true or false – conduction velocity test, test only sensory nerves
    false – motor nerves can also be tested
  43. true or false – nerve conduction velocity test can detect the degree of damage in the peripheral nerve
  44. how fast does the typical nerve send an impulse
    50 – 60 m/s
  45. what are the procedures for nerve conduction velocity test
    test three different sites; axilla, elbow, wrist

    One electrode is placed in the thenar eminence
  46. what is apolyphasic motor unit potential
    it is delayed depolarization of the nerve fiber

    Motor nerve fibers that have been damaged are replaced by motor nerve fibers from the adjacent nerve which causes the delayed depolarization
  47. what is a motor unit
    a motor neuron that is in the spinal cord that has an axons to the muscle and all the muscle fibers
  48. what is an electroencephalogram measure
    electrical activity of the brain
  49. electroencephalogram is used to detect?
    seizure sites, sleep disorders, and helps evaluate metabolic and toxic deficits
  50. true or false – sensory evoked potentials only use auditory stimulus to conduct test
    false – it is the most commonly tested but other sensory stimulus can be used such as vision and somatosensory input
  51. sensory evoked potentials are used to detect slowing or delay in the conduction of the PNS or CNS?
  52. sensory evoked potentials can be used to find certain kinds of pathologies. Name one of those pathologies.
    multiple sclerosis