Psychology Final

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Psychology Final
2011-01-18 11:27:52

Chapters 1 through 7
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  1. Definition of Psychology
    The Scientific study of behavior and mental process.
  2. Aristotle
    Derived principles form careful observation.
  3. Copernicus & Galileo
    "experimentation through observation"
  4. Francis Bacon
    Experiment, experience, and common sense
  5. Empiricism
    Knowledge originates in experience, observation and experimentation.
  6. Sir Francis Galton
    • "genius" is a hereditary trait
    • personality & intelligence test
  7. Sigmund Freud
    • Studied subconscious mind
    • *Free association
    • *dream analysis
    • Psychoanalysis
  8. Psychoanalysis
    • Study of behavior
    • Uncovering the subconscious mind.
  9. John Locke
    Argued that the mind is a blank slate at birth
  10. Wilhelm Wundt
    Establish first psychology lab in Germany's University of Leipzig in 1879
  11. William James
    Single function of all activities of the mind is for the survival of the species
  12. Philosophy and Biology
    Other sciences that influenced Psychology
  13. Dualism
    • Socrates, Plato, and Rene Descartes
    • The mind and body are separate and distinct form each other .
  14. 4 goals of modern psychology
    Describe, explain, predict, control
  15. Introspection
    Self-reflection or looking inward
  16. Behaviorism
    When you record or observe other people's mannerisms.
  17. Behaviorist
    John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner
  18. B.F. Skinner
    Operant conditioning
  19. John B. Watson
    Baby and rat experiment. Expose baby to rat and then make a loud noise because they baby was scared of loud noises. Then when they baby saw the rat it would be scared because it thought there would be a loud noise.
  20. Humanist Psychology
    Emphasized growth potential of healthy people; used personality methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growth.
  21. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
    Emphasized importance of meeting our needs for love and acceptance.
  22. Cognitive
    The actions of the brain/mind.
  23. Nature v. Nurture
    • Genes and experiences make up the development of psychological traits and behaviors.
    • Ex. Do you human traits, develop through experience or do we come equipped with them?
  24. Charles Darwin
    • Natural Selection
    • Among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed onto succeeding generations.
  25. Basic research
    Aims to increase scientific knowledge base.
  26. Applied research
    Tackles practical problems.
  27. Psychiatrists
    Medical doctors licensed to give prescriptions to help those with mental disorders.
  28. Counseling psychologists
    Help people with everyday issues. Help people want to achieve a greater well-being.
  29. Clinical psychologists
    Assess and treat mental, emotional and behavioral disorders.
  30. 5 ways to improve your studying
    • Distribute you study time.
    • Listen actively in class
    • Over-learn
    • Focus on the big ideas
    • Be a smart test-taker.
  31. Steps in Scientific Method
    • Identify a problem or formulate a question
    • Formulate hypothesis
    • Test hypothesis: observation, survey, experiment
    • Theory( statement based on a lot of evidence)
    • Replicate
  32. Why do psychologists study animals?
    To understand how different species learn and behave.
  33. Insight
    A deeper understanding.
  34. Norm
    Average, common
  35. Shaping
    Technique used to train a person or animal to do a difficult task.
  36. Mnemonic
    A memory aid
  37. Neuron
    A nerve cell: the basic building block of the nervous system
  38. Cell body
    Contains nucleus
  39. Dendrites
    Extentions from cell body
  40. Axon
    Single extention from body
  41. Myelin sheath
    Fatty covering over axon, speeds up messages.
  42. Nods of Ravier
    Gaps in myelin covering
  43. White Matter
    Composed of axon fibers
  44. Gray Matter
    Looking at the cell body
  45. Synapse
    A connection between two nerve cells, but they never touch. Allows nerve cells to communicate.
  46. Bouton
    swollen end of axon
  47. Dendritic spine
    Bumps on dendrites that bouton connects to.
  48. Synaptic Cleft
    Space between the bouton and the dendritic spine.
  49. Types of Neurons
    • Multipolar
    • Bipolar
    • Unipolar/Monopolar
  50. Multipolar
    Many extensions, most common form
  51. Bipolar
    Two extensions; sensory and smelling
  52. Unipolar/Monopolar
    One extension that is an axon; only found in vertebrate
  53. Neurotransmitters
    Chemical messengers that transverse the synaptic gaps between neurons.
  54. Nervous System
    the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network.
  55. Central Nervous System(CNS)
    The brain and spinal cord.
  56. Peripheral Nervous System(PNS)
    Everything that isn't the CNS. The sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body.
  57. Somatic Nervous System
    • Voluntary
    • Controls body skeletal muscles
  58. Autonomic Nervous System
    • Involuntary, controls automatic reactions
    • Controls glands and muscles of internal organs.
  59. Sympathetic Nervous System
    Arouses body, speeds up, uses energy
  60. Parasympathetic Nervous System
    Calms the body down, slows down, conserves energy
  61. Threshold
    The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
  62. Endorphins
    Natural opiate like neurotransmitters liked to pain control and pleasure.
  63. Reflex
    A simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as a knee-jerk response.
  64. Meninges
    Covering of the CNS
  65. Duramater
    Tough & thick. Outer most layer
  66. Arachnoid
    Sticky to the brain.
  67. Piamater
    Little, can't be seen with naked eye.
  68. Cerebrospinal Fluid
    • Flows between the arachnoid and the piamater.
    • Cushions and supports the brain.
  69. Ventricles
    What the cerebrospinal fluid flows through.
  70. Left Hemisphere
    Language, non-emotional
  71. Right Hemisphere
    Math, spacial, emotional
  72. Corpus Collosum
    The large band of neural fibers that connects the two hemispheres and carries messages between them.
  73. Endocrine System
    The body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
  74. Hormones
    Chemical messages, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, which are produced in one tissue and affect another.
  75. Adrenal Glands
    A pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys that secrete epinephrine (adrenaline) and nor-epinephrine (nor-adrenaline).
  76. Pituitary Gland
    The endocrine system's most influential gland, under influence of the hypothalamus, regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
  77. Electroencephalogram (EEG)
    An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity in the brain
  78. Brainstem
    The oldest part and central core of the brain.
  79. Medulla
    Base of brainstem, controls heart beat and breathing.
  80. Reticular formation
    A nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal.
  81. Pons
    Help coordinate movements
  82. Thalamus
    Brain's sensory switchboard, located on the top of the brainstem. It directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
  83. Cerebellum
    • "Little brain"
    • Is attached to the rear of the brainstem and it processes sensory input and coordinates movement output and balance.
  84. Limbic System
    • Associated with emotion such as fear and aggression. Drives emotions for food and sex.
    • Includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.
  85. Hippocampus
    • Long-term memory
    • Spatial navigation
  86. Amygdala
    Two neural clusters linked to emotion
  87. Hypothalamas
    Directs maintenance activities such as eating, drinking and body temperature. Helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.
  88. Frontal Lobe
    • Houses personality, creativity, future planning, judgement, etc.
    • Speaking and muscle movement
  89. Parietal Lobe
    • Body sensations and some speech.
    • Receives sensory input for touch and body position.
  90. Temporal Lobe
    Receives auditory information/Hearing
  91. Occipital Lobe
  92. Cerebrum
    Houses all memories.
  93. Cerebral Cortex
    • Surface of cerebrum; conscious thinking
    • Body's ultimate control and info processing center
    • 2/3 hidden in fold
    • Tops of folds called gyri
    • Depths of folds called sulci
  94. Gyri
    Tops of cerebral cortex folds
  95. Sulci
    Depths/Depressions of cerebral cortex folds
  96. Length of Brain
    15 cm
  97. Motor Cortex
    An area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements.
  98. Sensory Cortex
    The area at the front of the parietal lobes that controls voluntary movement.
  99. Broca's area
    Controls language expression
  100. Wernicke's area
    Controls language recetion
  101. Types of Bisecting Planes
    • Sagittal
    • Frontal/Coronal/Transverse
    • Horizontal
  102. Sagittal Section
    Divides brain into left and right
  103. Frontal/Coronal/Transverse Section
    Divides brain in front and back
  104. Front
    Same as anterior or ventral
  105. Back
    Same as posterior or dorsal
  106. Horizontal Section
    Divides brain by top(superior) and bottom(inferior)
  107. Directions
    • Medial
    • Proximal
    • Distal
    • Lateral
  108. Medial/Proximal
    Towards midline, center
  109. Distal/Lateral
    "In the distance" outside
  110. Stimulus
    Any amount of energy to which a cell responds
  111. Sense
    The stimulus coming in
  112. Perception
    The interpretation of the sense
  113. 7 Senses
    • Taste
    • Smell
    • Touch
    • See
    • Hear
    • Kinesthesis
    • Vestibular
  114. Kinesthesis
    Sense of body parts and location of them in space.
  115. Vestibular
    • Controls balance
    • Fluid, located in the inner ear, stimulates small hairs that then send messages to the brain.
  116. Absolute Threshold
    Minimum amount of energy needed to detect a stimuli.
  117. Difference Threshold
    Minimum amount of change needed in a stimuli to detect the change.
  118. Weber's Law
    The bigger the stimulus, the bigger the change is needed in order to detect the change.
  119. Most studied sense
  120. Signal Detection Theory
    Predicts when we will detect weak signals.
  121. Subliminal
    Signals below our threshold that are unconsciouly sensed.
  122. Priming
    The activation of certain associations, predisposing perception.
  123. Sesory Adaptation
    The diminishing sesitivity to an unchanging stimulus.
  124. What determines the ability to detect a stimulus:
    • Experience
    • Expectation
    • Motivation
    • Level of Alertness
  125. Sesory Interation
    The principle that one sense may influence another
  126. Selective Attention
    Awareness focuses on only a limited aspect of all we experience.
  127. Bottom Uo Processing
    New sensations come to the brain and are analyzed.
  128. Down Processing
    Context and what we already know is used to analyze a sensation.
  129. Phi Phenomenon
    Two adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession and we perceive a single light moving back and forth between them.
  130. Perceptual Constancy
    • Enables us to perceive an object as unchanged despite a changing stimulus.
    • Shape
    • Size
    • Color
    • Light
  131. Types of ESP
    • Telepathy
    • Clairvoyance
    • Precognition
  132. Telepathy
    Communication between two minds
  133. Clairvoyance
    Perceiving remote events
  134. Precognition
    Perceiving future events
  135. Psychokinesis
    The ability to move matter with the mind.
  136. Retinal Desparity
    Each eye sees a slightly different image
  137. Stereoscopic Vision
    Depth perception
  138. Binocular Fusion
    When the brain combines the images from both eyes and puts them together into one image.
  139. Convergence
    Turns the eye to a near object and computes the angle.
  140. Interposition
    If one object blocks another, it is perceived as closer.
  141. Predator v. Prey
    Predators have better depth perception and prey has better peripheral vision.
  142. Pupil
    Small, adjustable hole through which light passes
  143. Iris
    The muscle surrounding the pupil that regulates the size of the pupil and how much light enters
  144. Lens
    Focuses incoming rays into a n image on the eye's back surface.
  145. Retina
    A multi-layer tissue that Controls light receptor cells
  146. Rods
    • Assist with seeing at night/seeing light
    • Men have more
  147. Cones
    • Create more distinct colors
    • Women have more
  148. Fovea
    The retina's area of central focus where cones cluster around.
  149. Optic Nerve
    Network of cells that transfer light to the brain
  150. Blind Spot
    Spot where the optic nerve leaves the eye and there are no receptor cells.
  151. Image on Retina
    Upside down and backwards
  152. Distal Stimulus
    The image viewed
  153. Proximal Stimulus
    The image formed on the retina.
  154. Accommodation
    The process in which the lens changes its curvature to focus light into an image.
  155. Opponent Process Theory
    After visual information leaves receptor cells, it is analyzed in terms of the opposite color.
  156. Color After Images/Color Complements
    • Yellow-Blue
    • Green-Red
    • Black-White
  157. Principles of Perceptual Organization
    • Similarity
    • Proximity
    • Connectedness
    • Continuity
    • Closure
  158. Similarity
    Sees things that are the same as belonging together
  159. Proximity
    Sees things as close together as belonging together.
  160. Connectedness
    See things that are connected as being together
  161. Continuity
    See something as being continuous
  162. Closure
    Fill in the gaps. Even when you can't see something you assume it's there.
  163. Figure & Ground
    • Figure is what you see in the front (focused)
    • Ground is what is in the background and behind the figure
  164. Smell
    • Is a chemical sense
    • Processed by temporal lobe
  165. Olfactory Receptor Cells
    smell receptors
  166. Touch
    • Pressure
    • Pain
    • Heat
    • Cold
  167. Phantom Limb Pain
    Someone without a limb can feel pain or sensation in it because the brain anticipates it will be getting information from the limb.
  168. Decibels
    Unit for measuring sound energy
  169. The Hearing Process
    • Outer ear channels sound waves into the eardrum.
    • The middle ear transmits vibrations through a piston to the cochlea.
    • Causes the membrane to vibrate, which moves the fluid in the tubes.
    • Moves hair cells and triggers impulses in nerve cells.
  170. 5 Taste Receptors
    • Salty
    • Sweet
    • Bitter
    • Sour
    • Umami
  171. Factors that Influence Taste
    • Smell
    • Texture
    • Temperature
    • Sight
  172. VANN
    • The four systems of communication
    • Visual
    • Artificial
    • Natural
    • Non-Verbal
  173. Visual
    Signs, pictures, diagrams
  174. Artificial
    Music notes, math equations, computer programs
  175. Natural
    Spoken, written, signed, or sung word
  176. Non-Verbal
    Body movements (posture, gestures, smile, eye contact) and tone, hesitation, volume
  177. 4 Aspects of Verbal Communication
    • Prosody
    • Intonation
    • Speed
    • Stress
  178. Prosody
    Rhythm of voice
  179. Intonation
    Inflection (rise/fall) of your voice (pitch, tone, volume)
  180. Speed
    Pace of voice
  181. Stress
    Emphasis on words
  182. Proxemics
    The distance people keep between themselves and others
  183. Dr. Edward Hall
    Introduced idea of proxemics
  184. Public Zone
    • Greater than 12 feet
    • Strangers
  185. Social Zone
    • 4-12 feet
    • Business conducted here
  186. Personal Zone
    18 inches - 4 feet
  187. Intimate Zone
    18 inches - 0
  188. Closed off body position
    crossed legs, crossed arms, hiding hands
  189. Dilate
    When you see something you want you pupils get bigger/ if you find someone attractive.
  190. Constrict
    Your pupils get smaller when you are angry. Is to let in more light.
  191. Aspects of Eye Contact
    • Duration
    • Second Glance
    • Distance
    • Speaker vs. Listener
  192. Aspects of Attractiveness
    • Dilated pupils
    • Symmetry
    • School
    • Juries & defendants
  193. First Impressions
    • 90% of them is visual
    • Made in 3-4 seconds
  194. 1st Impression factors you control
    • Clothing
    • Hygiene/grooming
    • Body language
  195. Jay-Walking
    82% of people will jay walk if a guy in a suit is doing it
  196. First Date colors
    • Black to serious
    • Red to racy
  197. Job Interview
    Wear navy blue
  198. Meet the Parents
    Wear white or pink
  199. Restaurants
    • Orange stimulates appetite
    • Teal/Blue/Green makes you less hungry
  200. Active Listening
    • Reassures the speaker they are listening.
    • "Checks-in" during conversation
  201. I-Messages
    • About feelings NOT judgements
    • I feel _ when you _
  202. Behavior
    Individual + Situation
  203. Alfred Adler
    Adlerian Behavior Model
  204. Adlerian Behavior Model
    • Mix and Match:
    • Active
    • Passive
    • Constructive
    • Destructive
  205. Stanley Milgram
    Shock experiments
  206. Implicit Personality Theory
    Our own set of assumptions about how people behave and what traits or characteristics go together.
  207. Stereotype
    An exaggerated set of assumptions about an unidentifiable group of people.
  208. Attribution theory
    An analysis of how we interpret and understand other people's behavior.
  209. Disposition Factors
    Personal characteristics of a person at the time of an occurring event.
  210. Situational Factors
    The situations/environment at the time of the occurring event.
  211. Fundamental Attribution Error
    Giving to much credit to the personal or situational factors of an event.
  212. Self-Serving Bias
    Explanation of your own behavior that keeps self-esteem high.
  213. Actor-Observer Bias
    What you see in a conversation depends on you opinions of that person from that angle.
  214. Factors that Inhibit Group Response
    • Diffusion of responsibility
    • Gender bias
    • Age bias
    • Alone or not
  215. Factors before someone will aid another
    • Notice
    • Interpret as an emergency
    • Assume Responsibility
  216. Social Facilitation
    • A phenomenon that says people do better in their performance under the pressure of others.
    • Doesn't work if you working on the same task with the person.
  217. Social Loafing
    The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort towards attaining a common goal, then when individually accountable.
  218. Altruism
    The unselfish regard for the welfare of others
  219. Cognitive Dissonance
    That one acts to reduce the discomfort they feel when 2 of out thoughts are inconsistent.
  220. Group Leaders
    task leaders & social leaders
  221. Features of a Group
    Interdependence, shared goals and communication
  222. Purpose of groups
    • Get a job done (task function
    • Fill emotional need (social function)
  223. Increase Cohesiveness
    Norms, ideology, commitment and participation
  224. Characteristics of a leader
    Embody norms, adjusted, self-confident, outgoing, energetic and intelligent
  225. Ideology
    Common ideas, attitudes and goals
  226. Sociogram
    Technique used to analyze groups
  227. Commitment
    Requires personal sacrifice
  228. Participation
    Actively envolved
  229. Increase Commitment
    Personal sacrifice, participation, and supportive managers
  230. Consciousness
    Our awareness of ourselves and our environment
  231. Biological rhythms
    • annual cycles, happen once a year
    • ex. geese migration
  232. Circadian rhythm
    a biological clock that roughly synchronizes with the 24-hour cycle of day and night. It dictates when to sleep, wake and correlating body temperatures and moods.
  233. REM sleep
    • Rapid eye movement. Occurs when one is dreaming.
    • 25% of sleep time
    • Everything accelerate
    • Adrenaline & sex hormones secreted
  234. Stage 1
    • 10 minutes
    • easy to wake up from
    • alpha waves (twitches)
  235. Stage 2
    • 20 minutes
    • Sleep spindles
  236. Stage 3
    • 30 minutes
    • Delta waves
    • Breathing and heart rate slow
    • Blood temp and pressure drop
  237. Stage 4
    • 30 minutes
    • Delta waves
    • Sleep walking, talking
  238. REM deprivation
    Irritable and trouble concentrating
  239. REM rebound
    Staying n REM for a long time
  240. Dissociation
    A split in consciousness that allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others
  241. Insomnia
    inability to stay asleep or fall asleep
  242. Serotonin
    Warm milk
  243. Tryptophan
    Turkey sandwich
  244. Nightmares
    Bad dreams that occur during REM
  245. Night Terrors
    • Occur is 3&4.
    • Panic attacks
  246. Physical regeneration/recouperation
    Repair/refuel oneself
  247. Memory consolidation
    Remember stuff
  248. Adaptation
    We have learned to sleep at night
  249. Sleep Apnea
    • Breathing stops for a minute or so
    • Decreased blood oxygen makes sleeper wake up
    • Can repeat 400 times a night
    • Mostly happens to overweight men
  250. Activation Synthesis Theory
    • McCarley and Hobson
    • Dreams are physiological
    • Brain trying to make sense of splats of information it releases while sleeping
  251. Dreams are psychological
    • Freud
    • Shoes ones desires
  252. Lucid Dreaming
    • Being able to control the outcome of you dreams
    • Have to be aware it's a dream
  253. Children's Dreams
    • 3-4: little snipets
    • 5-6: motion picture
    • 7-8: become character in own dreams
    • 8-9: Dreams become like they are now
  254. Manifest Content
    Actual dream itself. What happened as it occurred.
  255. Latent Content
    Explanation/analysis of manifest content
  256. Perspectives of meaning of dreams
    • Dreamer
    • Awake
    • 3rd party
  257. Hypnogogic
    Before Stage 1. Feels like a dream
  258. REM Behavior Disorder
    Violently acting out dreams
  259. Hypergomnia
    To much sleep
  260. Cataplexy
    Sleep paralysis after sleep
  261. Nocturnal Myoclonus
    Leg twitches in sleep
  262. Dysomnia
    Anything that could go wrong with sleep
  263. Brain waves
    • Alpha
    • Beta
    • Theta
    • Delta
  264. Alpha
    in stage 1
  265. Beta
    when awake
  266. Theta
  267. Delta
    in stages 3&4
  268. Founders of Hypnosis
    Franz Mesmer and James Braid
  269. Uses of hypnosis
    • Child birth
    • Pain
    • Stop bad habits
    • Conquer phobias
  270. Hypnosis misconceptions
    • Mind control
    • Is a type of sleep
  271. Posthypnotic suggestions
    Suggestion made during hypnosis to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized.
  272. Psychoactive drugs
    Chemicals that change perception and moods
  273. Dependence
    Psychologically need of drug (Think you need it)
  274. Addiction
    Physiological need of drug (body craves it)
  275. Tolerance
    Become used to drugs affect
  276. Overdose
    Not to much of the drug, but where they took it is different them usual
  277. Depressants
    Drugs that slow bodily functions. Calm neural activity
  278. Barbiturates
    Tranquilizers. Mimic the affects of alcohol
  279. Opiates
    • Take away pain and anxiety.
    • Found in morphine and heroin.
  280. Stimulants
    Drugs that excite neural activity and speed up bodily functions.
  281. Amphetamines
    Drugs that stimulate neural activity. Causes energy and mood changes
  282. Hallucinogens
    Psychedelic drugs which distort perception and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input.
  283. Dualist
    People who believe the mind and body are interacting but distinct entities.
  284. Monists
    Deny the separation of body an mind. Think they are different aspects of the same thing.
  285. Learning
    A relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience.
  286. Classical Conditioning
    Subconscious learning
  287. Neural stimulus
    A stimulus with doesn't cause any particular response
  288. Unconditioned stimulus
    A stimulus that naturally triggers a response
  289. Unconditioned response
    The natural occurring response tot he US
  290. Conditioned stimulus
    An originally irrelevant stimulus that after association with an US comes to trigger a CR.
  291. Conditioned Respose
    The learned response to a previously neutral stimulus.
  292. Acquisition
    Period of time when the stimulus comes to evoke the CR.
  293. B.F. Skinner
    Father of operant conditioning
  294. Operant Conditioning
    Learning from consequences
  295. Positive Reinforcement
    Increase behavior by presenting a positive stimuli. Encourages as response by giving a reward after te response.
  296. Negative Reinforcement
    Encourages behavior by removing unpleasant stumuli.
  297. Discourage behavior
    • Punish
    • Remove positive stimuli
  298. Throndike's Law of Effect
    Principle that behavior followed by favorable consequences becomes more likely, and behavior followed by unfavorable consequences becomes less likely.
  299. Learned Helplessness
    The hopeless of passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.
  300. Martin Seligman
    Shocked harnessed dogs
  301. Escape Conditioning
    Behavior causes unpleasant event to stop.
  302. Avoidance Conditioning
    Behavior prevents unpleasant event.
  303. Primary Reinforcers
    • Things necessary for survival
    • Water
    • Food
    • Sleep
    • Shelter
    • Sex
  304. Secondary Reinforcers (Conditioned Reinforcer)
    • A stimulus that gets its reinforcing powers through association with a primary reinforcer
    • Money
    • Grades
  305. Physical Reinforcer
    • High five
    • Dog treat
    • Hug
  306. Psychological Reinforcer
    • Smile
    • Praise
    • Clapping
    • Body language
  307. Symbolic Reinforcer
    • :)
    • :(
    • A+, F
    • xoxo
  308. Shaping
    Procedure which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
  309. Schedules of Reinforcement
    • Plans to encourage behavior
    • Fixed (set, known)
    • Variable (changing)
    • Ratio (quantity, number)
    • Interval (duration of time)
  310. Modeling
    The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.
  311. Observational learning
    Duplication of a behavior you see
  312. Disinhibition
    Therapist expose them to things they're afraid of.
  313. Albert Bandura
    Bobo doll experiment
  314. Taste aversion
    When you avoid a food that has previously made you ill.
  315. Extinction
    Diminishing a conditioned response
  316. Generalization
    Tendency for a stimulus similar to the conditioned response to elicit similar responses.
  317. Discrimination
    The learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimuli.
  318. Latent Learing
    Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
  319. What brain pays attention to
    • Survival (hunger&thirst)
    • Strange & unusual
    • Of interest
  320. Selective Attention
    You choose what to pay attention to.
  321. Feature Extraction
    Remember details of things
  322. Serial Position Effect
    People remember the first and last things in a list
  323. Encoding
    • Getting information into the brain
    • Visual
    • Acoustic
    • Sematic
  324. Ways to help remember
    • Repetition
    • Association
    • Categorization
    • Make a story
  325. Self Reference Effect
    • When people remember facts pertaining to themselves better than facts pertaining to others. Helps with learning by trying to find personal meaning in what you study.
  326. Sensory Storage
    Memory of information last as long as you need it, then it is gone. Instantaneous
  327. Iconic Memories
    Photographic or picture-image memory. Lasts about a tenth of a second
  328. Echoic Memories
    a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli
  329. Short Term Memory
    • 20 seconds
    • 7 items
    • Can increase length of memory storage through rehearsal and chunking.
  330. Declarative (explicit/conscious)
    • Memories that can be talked about.
    • Semantic
    • Episodic
  331. Semantic
    The understanding of words and meanings
  332. Episodic
    The memory for events in life.
  333. Procedural (implicit/subconscious)
    • There's a particular order
    • Skills
    • Priming
    • Conditioning
  334. Skills
    Driving clutch, riding bike, typing
  335. Priming
    Ready for something (have one sill that helps you learn another)
  336. Conditioning
    Training that becomes automatic
  337. Confabulation
    Filling in the gaps in memories
  338. Eidetic Memory
    Photographic memory
  339. Repression
    The basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety from consciousness.
  340. Stress
    Stress hormones can fuel brain activity and make certain memories stand out. The can also disrupt memory for neutral events around the same time.
  341. Amnesia
    The loss of memory
  342. Recognition
    Ability to identify something when you see it
  343. Recall
    Ability to pull information from your head without a reminder
  344. Mnemonic Devices
    • Retrieval cues
    • ex. ROY G. BIV
  345. Hierarchies
    The composition of a few broad concepts divided and subdivided into narrow concepts and facts
  346. Positive Transfer
    When the knowledge of one thing makes learning another easier.
  347. Proactive Interference
    Old memories/knowledge makes it difficult to learn a new thing.
  348. Retroactive Interference
    When a new memory makes it difficult to recall old memories.