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What is learning according to the field of psychology?
A relative permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience.
What is the Behaviorism?
it was founded by John Watson, who redefined psychology as the scientific study of behavior
What is associative learning?
through the association (relationship) between 2 stimuli
What are the two types of associative learning
learned in class?
classical conditioning and operant conditioning
How do they differ?
Classical conditioning is involuntary where Operant Conditioning is voluntary behavior
What is meant by classical conditioning?
Learning the association of a neutral stimulus with a meaningful stimulus where the neutral stimulus acquires the response of the meaningful stimulus.
What are the terms used for classical conditioning?
- Natural Stimulus
- Unconditioned Stimulus
- Unconditioned Response
- Conditioned Stimulus
- Conditioned Response
a stimulus which initially produces no specific response other than focusing attention
The neutral stimulus that reflexively elicits a response without the need for prior learning
The unlearned, reflexive response that is elicited by the unconditional stimulus
A formerly neutral stimulus that acquires the capacity to elicit a reflexive response
The learned, reflexive response to a conditioned stimulus
steps used for classical conditioning
- Before conditioning: NS leads to no response and UCS to UCR
- During conditioning: NS+UCS=UCR
- After conditioning: CS leads to CR
Be familiar with Pavlov’s study demonstrating classical conditioning?
it demonstrated learning by association
Talk about real-world applications of classical conditioning (phobias, drug habituation, etc.).
Little Albert Study
Learning the process that involves changing the probablity that a response will be repeated by manipulating the consequenses of that response
Thorndike’s approaches/contributions to operant conditioning
- Law of effect
- Trail and error learning
- Consequence strengthens or weakens a Stimulus-Response connection
Law of effect
Principle proposed by Thorndike that responses followed by a satisfying effects become stengthened and more likely to recur in paricular situation, while responses followed by a dissatisfying effects become weakened and less likely to recur in paricular situation.
Skinner’s approaches/contributions to operant conditioning
- Learning mechanisms the same way for all species
- Through Reinforecement and Punishment
What is shaping?
It is the reward approxiamtions of the desired behavior
What are principles of reinforcement?
Always trying to incrase the likelyhood of the desired behavior
What are principles of reinforcement?
The different incraments of time after which the reinforcement occurs
What is punishment and how does it differ from
- Punishment is the attpmet to decrease the likelyhood of a desired behavior.
- The difference is that they are opposite to each other
What is observational learning?
Learning through observarion
in order to learn we need to pay attention
We need to retain the information
We need to have the physical ability to do the behavior
Have to obsereve whether there is a reward or punishment in regards of replicating the behavior
A rainforecemnt schedule in which the reinfocer os delovered after a fixed number of responses
Reinforcer is delivered after and avarage number of responses, which varies unpredictably form trial to trial
Reifocer delivered for the forst response that occurs after the preset time interval has elapsed
Reifocer delivered for the forst response that occurs after an average time interval, which varies unpredictibly from trial to trial
The application of leadning principles to help people develop more effective or adaptive behaviors
A phenomenon in which exposure to inexcapable and uncontrollable aversive event prodces passive behavior
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