Chapter 6

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spstpa13
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60471
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Chapter 6
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2011-01-18 03:06:05
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Memory
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Memory
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  1. What is memory
    the mental process that enables us to aquire, retain, and retreive information.
  2. Processes of Memory
    • Encoding
    • Storage
    • Retreival
  3. Encoding
    The process of transforming information into a fom that can be entered into and retained by the memory system
  4. Storage
    The process of retaining information in memory so that it can be used at later times
  5. Retieval
    The process of recovering infromation that is stored in the memory
  6. What is the stage theory of memory
    It is a theory that describes memory as being consistent of three stages: Sensory, short term and long term
  7. Sensory memory
    • Stores detailed records of sensory experiences
    • Stage that registers information from the environment
    • Duration: 1/4 second to 3 second
  8. Short Term Memory
    • The active storage of memory in which informaton is stored for up to 20 seconds
    • New information is transferred from sensory memory
    • Old information is retrieved
    • Limited capacity
    • Duration: about 20 seconds
  9. Long Term Memory
    • The storage of meory that represents the long-term storage of information
    • Information is based on the encoding in short-term memory is stored
    • Unlimited capacity for information
    • Duration: potentially permanent
  10. How long is sensory memory?
    1/4 second to 3 seconds
  11. What type of information is recorded into sensory memory?
    • Stores detailed records of sensory experiences
    • Stage that registers information from the environment
  12. What is short-term memory?
    The active storage of memory in which informaton is stored for up to 20 seconds
  13. How long is short-term memory?
    about 20 seconds
  14. What methods do we use to keep information into
    short-term memory?
    • Maintnance rehearsal
    • Chunking
  15. Maintenance Rehearsal
    The mental or verbal repetition of information in order to maitain it beyond the usual 20 seconds
  16. Chunking
    Increases the amount of information that can be held in short term memory by grouping related items together into a unit or chunk
  17. What is the capacity of short-term memory?
    Limited
  18. What is working memory and how is it different than short-term memory?
    There is no difference because they are one and the same
  19. What is long-term memory?
    The storage of meory that represents the long-term storage of information
  20. How long does long-term memory last?
    potentially permanent
  21. How much information can be stored in long-term
    memory?
    Unlimited
  22. What type of information do we store in long-term memory?
    Information is based on the encoding in short-term memory is stored
  23. How is long-term memory organized?
    Through Clustering and Semantic Network Model
  24. Clustering
    Organising items into related groups or clusters during recall
  25. Semantic Network Model
    Information in long-term memory is organized in a complex network of associations
  26. Explicit memory
    • Memory of awareness
    • It divides into Episodic and Semantic Memory
  27. Episodic Memory
    Events you have experienced
  28. Semantic Memory
    General knowledge and facts
  29. Implicit Memory
    • Memory without awareness
    • It goes in to Procedural memory
  30. Procedural Memory
    Motor skills, actions
  31. How do we retrieve information (what techniques
    do we use)?
    Through retieval cues
  32. Retrieval Cues
    Prompt, clue or hint that helps trigger recall of a stored memory
  33. Why are we often unable to retrieve information in long-term memory?
    • because of Recall Cue failures
    • Glitches
  34. Recall Cue Failures
    The inability to recall long term memory because of inadequate cues.
  35. Glitches
    the Tip-of-the-tongue experience
  36. How do we test retrieval?
    • Recall
    • Cued-recall
    • Recognition-identifying
  37. Recall
    Involves producing information using no retrieval cues
  38. Cued-recall
    Remembering an item of information in response to a retrieval cue
  39. Recognition-identifying
    Identifying the information from several possible choices
  40. What is the serial position effect?
    The tendency to recall information more easily from either the beginning or the end of a list than the in the middle
  41. How does the context of encoding influence
    retrieval?
    the tendency to recover information more easily when the retrieval occurs in the same setting as the original learning of the information
  42. What are imperfect memories and why do we form
    imperfect memories?
    they are that can be altered if the person is exposed to misleading information
  43. Forgetting
    The inability to recall information that was preciously available
  44. Hermann Ebbinghaus
    • German psychologist
    • He created the Fogetting curve
  45. Forgetting Curve
    • First 20 minutes: Rappid forgetting of some inforamtion relatively soon after he learned the nonsense syllables
    • Betweeing 21minutes and 31 days: very little memory loss of the remaining information over the course of the following several weeks
  46. Why do we forget?
    there are different theories of why we forget
  47. Decay Theory
    Memories are not used and fade over time
  48. Interferance theory
    Forgetting caused by one memory competing with or replacing another memory
  49. Retroactive intereferance
    new memory interferes with the old memory
  50. Proactive Interference
    old memory interferes with the new memory
  51. Motivated forgetting
    Through supressiong or repression
  52. Suppression
    Conscious effort to forget
  53. Repression
    Unconscious effort to forget
  54. Source of Confusion
    True story of a memory is forgotten or a memory is attributed to the wrong source
  55. False memory
    Distored or fabricated recollection of something that did not actually happen
  56. Schemas of imperfect memories
    Organised cluster of knowledge and inforamtion about particular topics
  57. Forming Fase Memories
    Imagination inflation
  58. Imagination inflation
    vividly imagining an event markedly increases confidence that event actually occured

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