English Irregular Verbs.txt

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English Irregular Verbs.txt
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  1. arise
    • 1. to happen
    • Should the opportunity arise, I'd love to go to China.

    • 2.to get out of bed
    • We arose early on Christmas morning

    arise - arose - arisen
  2. awake
    • 1. not sleeping
    • - I drink a lot of coffee to keep me awake.

    • 2. to become aware of something or to make someone become aware of something
    • - The chance meeting awoke the old passion between them.

    • 3. to stop sleeping or to make someone stop sleeping
    • - I awoke at seven o'clock.
    • - She awoke me at seven.

    awake - awoke - awoken
  3. be
    • 1. (description) used to say something about a person, thing or state, to show a permanent or temporary quality, state, job, etc
    • - He is rich.
    • - It's cold today.

    • 1.1 used to show the position of a person or thing in space or time
    • - The food was already on the table.
    • - Is anyone there?

    • 1.2 used to show what something is made of
    • - Is this plate pure gold?

    • 2. ( continue) used with the present participle of other verbs to describe actions that are or were still continuing
    • - I'm still eating.

    • 3. (passive) used with the past participle of other verbs to form the passive
    • - I'd like to go but I haven't been asked.

    • 4. (future) formal used to show that something will happen in the future
    • - We are to (= We are going to) visit Australia in the
    • spring.

    • 5. (can) used to say what can happen
    • - The exhibition of modern prints is currently to be seen at the City Gallery.

    be - was/were - been
  4. bear
    • 1.(accept) to accept, tolerate or endure especially something unpleasant
    • - It's your decision - you must bear the responsibility if things go wrong.

    • 2. (carry) to carry and move something to a place
    • - Countless waiters bore trays of drinks into the room.
    • - The sound of the ice-cream van was borne into the office on the wind

    • 3.(keep) to have or continue to have something
    • - The stone plaque bearing his name was smashed to pieces.
    • - On display were boxing gloves which bore Rocky Marciano's signature.

    • 4.(support) to hold or support something
    • - The chair, too fragile to bear her weight, collapsed.

    • 5.(produce) to give birth to young, or (of a tree or plant) to give or produce especially fruit or flowers
    • - She had borne six children by the time she was thirty
    • - The pear tree they planted has never borne fruit

    bear - bore - borne,(US ALSO born)
  5. beat
    • 1. (defeat) to defeat or do better than
    • - Simon always beats me at tennis.

    • 2. (hit) to hit repeatedly
    • - They saw him beating his dog with a stick.

    • 3. (movement) to (cause to) make a regular movement or sound
    • - The doctor could feel no pulse beating.

    • 4. (tired)
    • - I'm beat - I'm going to bed.

    beat - beat - beaten,(US ALSO beat)
  6. beget
    • 1. literary Or old use to be the father of
    • - In the Bible it says that Adam begat Cain and Abel.

    • 2. to cause
    • - Poverty begets hunger, and hunger begets crime.


    beget - begot, begat - begotten, begot
  7. become
    • 1. (be) to start to be
    • - It was becoming cold, so we lit the fire.
    • - After giving up smoking, he became fat and irritable.

    • 2. (suit) to cause to look attractive or to be suitable for
    • - That colour really becomes you.

    become - became - become
  8. befall
    • 1. If something bad or dangerous befalls you, it happens to you
    • - Should any harm befall me on my journey, you may open this letter.

    befall - befell - befallen
  9. begin
    • 1. to start to be, do, etc
    • - I began the book six months ago, but I can't seem to finish it.
    • - I have so much to tell you, I don't know where to begin.

    begin - began - begun
  10. behold
    • 1. to see or look at
    • - The new bridge is an incredible sight to behold.

    • 2. lo and behold (humorous) something that you say when you tell someone about something surprising that happened
    • - I was in Vienna sitting quietly in a café when, lo and behold, my cousin walked in.

    behold - beheld - beheld
  11. belie
    • 1. to show something to be false, or to hide something such as an emotion
    • - Her calm face belied the terror she was feeling.

    belie - belied - belied
  12. bend
    • 1. to (cause to) curve
    • - I bent down and picked up the coins lying on the road.
    • - Now, bend forward/over and touch your toes!

    • 2. a curved part of something
    • - There's a bend in the pipe so you can't see from one end to the other.
    • - The car came round the bend on the wrong side of the road.

    • 3. to unwillingly accept the opinions or decisions of other people
    • - The local council was forced to bend to public pressure.

    bend - bent - bent
  13. beseech
    • 1. to ask for something in an anxious way that shows you need it very much; beg
    • - Stay a little longer, I beseech you!

    beseech - beseeched/besought - besought/beseeched
  14. bestrew
    • 1. to lie covering a surface, or to cover a surface with things that are far apart and in no particular arrangement
    • - During the festival, the city streets are bestrewn with flowers.

    bestrew - bestrewed - bestrewn/ bestrewed
  15. bestride
    • 1. to sit or stand with a leg on either side of an object or animal
    • - He bestrode the chair as though it were a horse.

    bestride - bestrode - bestridden
  16. bet
    • 1. to risk money on the result of an event or a competition, such as a horse race, in the hope of winning more money
    • - He regularly goes to the races and bets heavily.

    • 2. informal If you say you bet (someone) that something is true or will happen, you mean you are certain that it is true or will happen [+ (that)]
    • - I bet you (that) she's missed the bus.
    • - I bet (that) he won't come.

    • 3. informal said to show that you understand why someone has a particular opinion or feels a particular way
    • - "I'm so annoyed with her." "I'll bet."
    • - "I was so relieved I didn't have to clean up after the party." "I bet you were."

    bet - bet / betted - bet / betted
  17. bid
    • 1. (offer) to offer a particular amount of money for something which is for sale and compete against other people to buy it, especially at a public sale of goods or property
    • - A foreign collector has bid £500 000 for the portrait.

    • 2. If someone bids to do something, they compete with other people to do it
    • - Paris is bidding to host the next Olympics.

    bid - bid / bade - bid / bidden
  18. bind
    • 1. (tie) to tie tightly or to fasten
    • - They bound the packages with brightly coloured ribbon.
    • - Bind together the two broken ends.

    • 2. to unite people
    • - The things which bind them together are greater than their differences.

    • 3. To bind a part of the body, especially a part which is damaged, is to tie something round it
    • - He had already bound the child's arm when I arrived.

    • 4. to make separate pieces of paper into a book
    • - There are several different ways to bind a book, for example you can stitch or stick the pages together.

    • 5. When an egg or water is used especially in cooking to bind something it provides a way of making everything stick together in a solid mass
    • - The mixture wouldn't bind (together).

    bind - bound - bound
  19. bite
    • 1. to use your teeth to cut into something or someone
    • - He bit into the apple.

    • 2. to have a bad or unpleasant effect
    • - Higher mortgage rates are beginning to bite.

    • 3. When a fish bites, it swallows the food on the hook at the end of a fishing line
    • - The fish aren't biting today.

    • 4. to show interest in buying something
    • - The new service is now available but clients don't seem to be biting.

    bite -bit - bitten
  20. bleed
    • 1. to lose blood
    • - Your nose is bleeding.

    • 2. bleed sb dry: to take a lot of money from someone over a period of time
    • - The West is bleeding poorer countries dry through interest payments on their debts.

    bleed - bled - bled
  21. bless
    1. to ask for God's help and protection for someone or something, or to call or make someone or something holy

    • 2. be blessed with sth (formal)
    • - to be lucky in having a particular thingFortunately we were blessed with fine weather

    • 3. bless you!
    • something you say to a person who has just sneezed

    bless - blessed /blest - blessed /blest
  22. blow
    • 1. blow (SEND OUT AIR)
    • - The letter blew away and I had to run after it.
    • - Ann blew a few notes on the trumpet.

    2. blow your nose

    • 3. blow sb a kiss (also blow a kiss to/at sb)
    • - to kiss your hand and blow on it in the direction of someone

    • 4. blow the cobwebs away UK
    • to get rid of feelings of tiredness, usually with fresh air or exercise
    • - We went for a five-mile jog to blow the cobwebs away.

    • 5. blow the whistle on sb/sth informal
    • to cause something bad that someone is doing to stop, especially by bringing it to the attention of other people

    • 6. blow (DESTROY)
    • - His car had been blown to pieces.

    • 7. blow (BAD EVENT)
    • an unexpected event that has a damaging effect on someone or something
    • - Losing his job was a severe blow to his confidence.

    blow - blew - blown
  23. break
    • 1. break (DAMAGE)
    • - I dropped the vase and it broke into pieces.

    • 2. break your back informal
    • to work extremely hard

    • 3. break (END)
    • - to destroy or end something, or to come to an end

    • 4. break (INTERRUPT)
    • to interrupt or to stop something for a brief period
    • - We usually break for lunch at 12.30.

    • 5. break (DIVIDE)
    • to divide into two or more parts or groups
    • - These enzymes break down food in the stomach

    • 6. break (DISOBEY)
    • to fail to keep a law, rule or promise

    break - broke -broken
  24. breed
    • 1. breed
    • to keep animals for the purpose of producing young animals in a controlled way, or (of animals) to have sex and reproduce
    • - Terriers are bred for their fighting instincts.
    • - The blackbird, like most birds, breeds in the spring.

    breed - bred - bred
  25. bring
    bring - brought - brought
  26. broadcast
    broadcast - broadcast - broadcast

    (US ALSO broadcasted- broadcasted)
  27. build
    build - built built
  28. burn
    burn - burnt/burned - burnt/burned
  29. burst
    • 1. burst verb
    • to break open or apart suddenly, or to make something do this
    • - Balloons make me nervous - I hate it when they burst.

    • 2. burst into song/tears/laughter
    • to suddenly begin to sing/cry/laugh
    • - Much to my surprise Ben suddenly burst into song.

    • 3. burst out laughing/crying
    • to suddenly start laughing/crying
    • - I walked in and everyone burst out laughing.

    • burst
    • burst/bust (UK)/ busted (US)
    • burst/ bust, (UK)/ busted (US)
  30. buy
    1. buy (PAY FOR)

    • 2. buy (BELIEVE)
    • believe that something is true
    • - She'll never buy that story about you getting lost!

    buy - bought - bought
  31. cast
    • 1. cast (ACTORS)
    • to choose actors to play particular parts in a play, film or show
    • - He was often cast as the villain.

    • 2. cast (LIGHT)
    • to send light or shadow in a particular direction
    • - The moon cast a white light into the room.

    • 3. cast (LOOK)
    • cast a look/glance/smile/etc. to look/smile/etc. in a particular direction
    • - She cast a quick look in the rear mirror.

    • 4. cast (THROW)
    • literary to throw something
    • - The knight cast the sword far out into the lake.

    • 5. cast pearls before swine
    • to offer something valuable or good to someone who does not know its value

    • 6. cast (DOUBT)
    • cast doubt/suspicion on sb/sth to make people feel less sure about or have less trust in sth or so
    • - New evidence has cast doubt on the guilty verdict.

    • 7. cast (REMEMBER)
    • cast your mind back to try to remember
    • - If you cast your mind back, you might recall that I never promised to go.

    cast - cast - cast
  32. catch
    • 1. catch (TAKE HOLD)
    • to take hold of something, especially something that is moving through the air
    • - I managed to catch the glass before it hit the ground.

    • 2. catch your breath
    • to stop breathing for a moment, or to begin to breathe correctly again after running or other exercise
    • - I had to sit down and catch my breath.

    • 3. catch the sun
    • If you have caught the sun, the sun has made your skin a slightly darker brown or red colour
    • - You've caught the sun on the back of your neck.

    4. catch (STOP ESCAPING)


    • 5. catch (NOTICE)
    • - I caught sight of/caught a glimpse of a red coat in the crowd.

    • 6. catch (TRAVEL)
    • - He always catches the 10.30am train to work.

    • 7. catch (BE IN TIME)
    • to manage to be in time to see or do something
    • - I went home a bit early to catch the beginning of the programme.

    • 8. catch (HEAR/SEE)
    • to manage to hear something
    • - I couldn't catch what the announcer said, with all the other noise going on.
    • catch - caught - caught
  33. choose
    • 1. choose
    • to decide what you want from a range of things or possibilities
    • - She had to choose between the two men in her life.

    • 2. little/not much to choose between
    • When there is little to choose between two or more things, they are (all) very similar.

    • 3. choosy
    • difficult to please because you are very exact about what you like
    • - She's very choosy about what she eats and drinks.

    choose - chose - chosen
  34. cleave
    • 1. cleave verb
    • literary or old use to separate or divide, or cause something to separate or divide, often violently
    • - With one blow of the knight's axe, he clove the rock in twain (= into two pieces).

    • 2. cleaver noun
    • a heavy knife with a large square blade
    • - a meat cleaver

    • 3. cleave to sth phrasal verb
    • to stick or hold firmly onto something
    • - The ancient ivy cleaved to the ruined castle walls.
    • to continue to believe firmly in something
    • - People in the remote mountain villages still cleave to their old traditions.

    • cleave
    • cleaved/ clove
    • cleaved/ cloven
  35. cling
    • 1. cling (HOLD)
    • to stick onto or hold sth. or s.o tightly, or to refuse to stop holding them
    • - We got so wet that our clothes clung to us.

    • 2. clingy adjective
    • clingy materiala
    • clingy skirt

    • 3. cling (STAY CLOSE)
    • to stay close or near
    • - The road clings to the coastline for several miles, then it turns inland.
    • to stay close to someone who is caring for you, in a dependent way
    • - Jenny is the kind of child who always clings whenever she's taken to a new place.

    • clinging adjective (also clingy) disapproving
    • - Jimmy is a very clingy child.

    • cling (on) to sth phrasal verb
    • to try very hard to keep something
    • - He clung on to power for another ten years.

    • cling to sth phrasal verb
    • to refuse to stop believing or hoping for sth
    • - She clings to the hope that her husband will come back to her.

    cling - clung - clung
  36. come
    • 1. come (MOVE TO SPEAKER)
    • to move or travel towards the speaker or with the speaker
    • - Are you coming with me?
    • - There's a car coming!

    • 2. come (ARRIVE)
    • to get to a particular place
    • - Has she come yet?

    • 3. come (HAPPEN)
    • - Spring has come early.

    come - came - come
  37. cost
    • 1. cost an arm and a leg/a small fortune
    • (UK also cost a bomb/the earth/a packet)
    • to be extremely expensive
    • - I'd love to buy a Rolls-Royce, but they cost an arm and a leg.

    • 2. cost sb a pretty penny to be very expensive
    • - That coat must have cost you a pretty penny!

    • cost
    • cost/ costed
    • cost/ costed
  38. creep
    • 1. creep (MOVE SLOWLY) verb [I usually + adverb or preposition]
    • - She turned off the light and crept through the door.

    • 2. creeping adjective [before noun] disapproving happening, developing or moving slowly or gradually
    • - We are totally against any form of creeping Socialism.

    • 3. creep (PERSON) noun [C] informal1 UK someone who tries to make someone more important like them by being very polite and helpful in a way that is not sincere
    • - Making coffee for the boss again? You creep!

    • 4. an unpleasant person, especially a man
    • - He was a real creep - he was always staring at me in the canteen.

    • 5. creepy adjective informal
    • strange or unnatural and making you feel frightened
    • - a creepy film
    • - a creepy smile

    • 6. give sb the creeps
    • to cause someone to have uncomfortable feelings of nervousness or fear
    • - Living next to a graveyard would give me the creeps.

    • 7. creep in/creep into sth phrasal verb mainly UK
    • If mistakes creep in or creep into a piece of text
    • - A few mistakes always creep in during the editing process.
    • - One or two typing errors crept into the report.

    creep - crept - crept
  39. cut
    1. cut (USE KNIFE)

    • 2. cut (REDUCE)
    • to make something shorter, lower, smaller, etcto cut prices/coststo cut overtime/wages

    • 3. cut sb down to size to show someone that they are not as clever or important as they think they are
    • - Someone should cut that man down to size!

    • 4. to cut a long story short to not tell all the details
    • - To cut a long story short, I got the job

    cut - cut - cut
  40. deal
    1. deal (DO BUSINESS)

    • 2. deal (AMOUNT) noun a good/great deal a large amount; much
    • - She spends a good deal of her time in Glasgow.

    • 3. deal
    • to give or share out something, especially playing cards
    • - Whose turn is it to deal?
    • - Would you like to deal (out) the cards?

    • 4. deal with sb (TALK TO) phrasal
    • - She's used to dealing with difficult customers.

    • 5. deal with sth
    • to take action in order to achieve something or in order to solve a problem
    • - How do you intend to deal with this problem?

    • 6. deal with sth (BE ABOUT) phrasal verb
    • to be about or be on the subject of something
    • - Her new film deals with the relationship between a woman and her sick daughter.

    deal - dealt - dealt
  41. dig
    1. dig (MOVE EARTH)

    • 2. dig your own grave
    • to do sth. which causes you harm, sometimes serious harm

    • 3. dig
    • to search for an object or information or to find it after looking
    • - He dug into his pocket and took out a few coins.

    • 4. dig (deep) into your pocket(s)/savings
    • to give away money
    • - Richer countries must dig deeper into their pockets if global problems, such as pollution, are to be solved.

    • 5. dig
    • a remark which is intended to criticize, embarrass or make a joke about someone
    • - He's always having/taking/making digs at me.

    • 6. dig in phrasal verb informal
    • to start eating
    • - The food's going cold - dig i

    dig - dug - dug
  42. dive
    1. dive (MOVE DOWN)

    • 2. dive (MOVE QUICKLY)
    • to move quickly, often in order to avoid sth
    • - They dived for cover when they heard the shooting start.

    • 3. dive (PLACE) noun [C] informal
    • a restaurant, hotel, bar or place for entertainment or social activities that is unpleasant because of the condition of the building or the type of people that go there
    • - I know this place is a bit of a dive, but the drink's cheap and the food's great.

    • dive
    • dived, (US ALSO) dove
    • dived
  43. draw
    1. draw (PICTURE)

    • 2. draw the line
    • to never do sth because you think it is wrong
    • - I swear quite a lot but even I draw the line at saying certain words.

    • 3. draw (ATTRACT)
    • to attract attention or interest
    • - Does he wear those ridiculous clothes to draw attention?

    • 4. draw your eye(s)
    • to attract your attention
    • - Her eyes were immediately drawn to the tall blond man standing at the bar.

    • 5. draw (MAKE)
    • to make or show a comparison between things
    • - It's sometimes very difficult to draw a clear distinction between the meanings of different words.

    • 6. draw a conclusion
    • to consider the facts of a situation and make a decision about what is true, correct, likely to happen, etc

    draw - drew - drawn
  44. dream
    • work/go like a dream
    • to work or go extremely well, without any problems
    • - The whole plan went like a dream.

    • of your dreams
    • the best that you can imagine
    • - Win the house of your dreams in our fantastic competition!

    • be (living) in a dream world
    • to have hopes and ideas which are not practical or realistic
    • - If he thinks I'll forgive him, he's living in a dream world.

    • dream
    • dreamed, dreamt
    • dreamed, dreamt
  45. drink
    • 1. drink to sth phrasal verb
    • If two or more people drink to something or someone, to show respect or good wishes

    • 2. drink like a fish informal
    • to drink too much alcohol

    • 3. can't hold your drink (US usually can't hold your liquor)
    • If you can't hold your drink, you feel ill quickly when you drink alcohol.

    drink - drank - drunk
  46. drive
    • 1. drive your message/point home
    • to state sth in a very forceful and effective way
    • - The speaker really drove his message home, repeating his main point several times.

    • 2. drive a wedge between sb
    • to damage the good relationship that two people or groups of people have
    • - It would be silly to let things which have happened in the past drive a wedge between us now.

    drive - drove - driven
  47. dwell
    • 1. dwell verb formal
    • to live in a place or in a particular way
    • - She dwelt in remote parts of Asia for many years.

    • 2. dwell on sth phrasal verb
    • to keep thinking or talking about sth, especially sth bad or unpleasant
    • - In his speech, he dwelt on the plight of the sick and the hungry.

    • dwelling noun [C] formal
    • a house or place to live in
    • - There is an estimated shortfall of some five million dwellings across the country.

    • dwell
    • dwelt, dwelled
    • dwelt, dwelled
  48. eat
    • 1. eat your words
    • to admit that sth you said before was wrong
    • - Sam said it would never sell, but when he sees these sales figures he'll have to eat his words.

    eat - ate - eaten
  49. fall
    • 1. fall on deaf ears
    • If a suggestion or warning falls on deaf ears, no one listens to it
    • - Their appeals to release the hostages fell on deaf ears.
    • fall - fell - fallen
  50. feed
    • 1. feed sb to the lions
    • to force someone to do something unpleasant or dangerous that they do not want to do

    • 2. be like feeding time at the zoo humorous
    • to be very noisy, untidy and lacking order
    • - Tea-time in our house is like feeding time at the zoo!
    • feed - fed - fed
  51. feel
    • 1. be/feel under the weather informal
    • to be or feel ill
    • - I'm feeling a bit under the weather - I think I've caught a cold.
    • feel - felt - felt
  52. fight
    • 1. fight tooth and nail
    • to try very hard to get something you want

    - We fought tooth and nail to get the route of the new road changed.

    fight - fought - fought
  53. find
    • 1. find fault with sb/sth
    • to criticize someone or something, especially without good reasons
    • - He's always finding fault with my work.

    • 2. find your feet
    • to become familiar with and confident in a new situation
    • - Did it take you long to find your feet when you started your new job?

    find - found - found
  54. flee
    • 1. flee the country
    • to quickly go to another country in order to escape from something or someone

    - It is likely that the suspects have fled the country by now.

    flee - fled - fled
  55. fling
    1. fling (THROW)

    • 2. fling (MOVE/DO)
    • to move or do sth quickly and energetically
    • - She flung her arms around his neck.

    • 3. fling up your hands
    • to show that you are very shocked or frightened
    • - They flung up their hands in horror at the cost of the trip.

    fling - flung - flung
  56. fly
    • 1. fly into a rage (UK also fly into a temper/fury)
    • to suddenly become very angry
    • - I asked to speak to her boss and she just flew into a rage.

    • 2. fly off the handle
    • to react in a very angry way to something that someone says or does
    • - He's extremely irritable - he flies off the handle at the slightest thing.

    fly - flew - flown
  57. forbid
    • 1. heaven forbid (also God forbid)
    • a way of saying that you hope something does not happen
    • - Heaven forbid (that) his parents should ever find out.
    • forbid

    • 2. forbidden fruit
    • literary sth, especially something sexual, which has a greater attraction because it is not allowed
    • - He was always drawn to other men's wives - the forbidden fruit.

    • forbid
    • forbade, forbad
    • forbidden
  58. forecast
    forecast - forecasted, forecast - forecasted, forecast
  59. foresee
    • 1. in/for the foreseeable future
    • as far into the future as you can imagine or plan for
    • - I'll certainly carry on living here for the foreseeable future.

    foresee - foresaw - foreseen
  60. forget
    • 1. and don't you forget it
    • used to tell someone that a particular fact is important and it should influence the way they behave
    • - I've been in the job longer than you and don't you forget it!

    • 2. not forgetting
    • including
    • - This is where we keep all the books, not forgetting the magazines and newspapers.

    forget - forgot - forgotten
  61. forgive
    • To err is human (to forgive divine).
    • saying something that you say which means that it is natural for people to make mistakes and it is important to forgive people when they do

    forgive - forgave - forgiven
  62. forgo
    forgo - forwent - forgone
  63. forsake
    forsake - forsook forsaken
  64. forswear
    forswear - forswore - forsworn
  65. freeze
    freeze - froze - frozen
  66. gainsay
    • 1. gainsay verb [T often in negatives] formal
    • to refuse to accept something as the truth
    • - Certainly there's no gainsaying (= It is not possible to doubt) the technical brilliance of his performance.

    gainsay - gainsaid - gainsaid
  67. get
    get - got - got, (US ALSO) gotten
  68. gird
    • 1. gird verb
    • old use to tie something around your body or part of your body

    • 2. gird yourself (also gird (up) your loins) literary or humorous
    • to get ready to do something or deal with somethingWe girded ourselves for the fray (= prepared for action or trouble).
    • - Europe's finest golfers are girding their loins for the challenge of the Ryder Cup.

    gird - girded, girt - girded, girt
  69. give
    give - gave - given
  70. go
    go - went - gone
  71. grind
    • 1. grind (MAKE SMALLER)
    • to make something into small pieces or a powder by pressing between hard surfaces
    • - to grind coffee

    grind - ground - ground

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