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- 1. to happen
- Should the opportunity arise, I'd love to go to China.
arise - arose - arisen
- 2.to get out of bed
- We arose early on Christmas morning
- 1. not sleeping
- - I drink a lot of coffee to keep me awake.
- 2. to become aware of something or to make someone become aware of something
- - The chance meeting awoke the old passion between them.
awake - awoke - awoken
- 3. to stop sleeping or to make someone stop sleeping
- - I awoke at seven o'clock.
- - She awoke me at seven.
- 1. (description) used to say something about a person, thing or state, to show a permanent or temporary quality, state, job, etc
- - He is rich.
- - It's cold today.
- 1.1 used to show the position of a person or thing in space or time
- - The food was already on the table.
- - Is anyone there?
- 1.2 used to show what something is made of
- - Is this plate pure gold?
- 2. ( continue) used with the present participle of other verbs to describe actions that are or were still continuing
- - I'm still eating.
- 3. (passive) used with the past participle of other verbs to form the passive
- - I'd like to go but I haven't been asked.
- 4. (future) formal used to show that something will happen in the future
- - We are to (= We are going to) visit Australia in the
be - was/were - been
- 5. (can) used to say what can happen
- - The exhibition of modern prints is currently to be seen at the City Gallery.
- 1.(accept) to accept, tolerate or endure especially something unpleasant
- - It's your decision - you must bear the responsibility if things go wrong.
- 2. (carry) to carry and move something to a place
- - Countless waiters bore trays of drinks into the room.
- - The sound of the ice-cream van was borne into the office on the wind
- 3.(keep) to have or continue to have something
- - The stone plaque bearing his name was smashed to pieces.
- - On display were boxing gloves which bore Rocky Marciano's signature.
- 4.(support) to hold or support something
- - The chair, too fragile to bear her weight, collapsed.
bear - bore - borne,(US ALSO born)
- 5.(produce) to give birth to young, or (of a tree or plant) to give or produce especially fruit or flowers
- - She had borne six children by the time she was thirty
- - The pear tree they planted has never borne fruit
- 1. (defeat) to defeat or do better than
- - Simon always beats me at tennis.
- 2. (hit) to hit repeatedly
- - They saw him beating his dog with a stick.
- 3. (movement) to (cause to) make a regular movement or sound
- - The doctor could feel no pulse beating.
- 4. (tired)
- - I'm beat - I'm going to bed.
beat - beat - beaten,(US ALSO beat)
- 1. literary Or old use to be the father of
- - In the Bible it says that Adam begat Cain and Abel.
beget - begot, begat - begotten, begot
- 2. to cause
- - Poverty begets hunger, and hunger begets crime.
- 1. (be) to start to be
- - It was becoming cold, so we lit the fire.
- - After giving up smoking, he became fat and irritable.
become - became - become
- 2. (suit) to cause to look attractive or to be suitable for
- - That colour really becomes you.
befall - befell - befallen
- 1. If something bad or dangerous befalls you, it happens to you
- - Should any harm befall me on my journey, you may open this letter.
begin - began - begun
- 1. to start to be, do, etc
- - I began the book six months ago, but I can't seem to finish it.
- - I have so much to tell you, I don't know where to begin.
- 1. to see or look at
- - The new bridge is an incredible sight to behold.
behold - beheld - beheld
- 2. lo and behold (humorous) something that you say when you tell someone about something surprising that happened
- - I was in Vienna sitting quietly in a café when, lo and behold, my cousin walked in.
belie - belied - belied
- 1. to show something to be false, or to hide something such as an emotion
- - Her calm face belied the terror she was feeling.
- 1. to (cause to) curve
- - I bent down and picked up the coins lying on the road.
- - Now, bend forward/over and touch your toes!
- 2. a curved part of something
- - There's a bend in the pipe so you can't see from one end to the other.
- - The car came round the bend on the wrong side of the road.
bend - bent - bent
- 3. to unwillingly accept the opinions or decisions of other people
- - The local council was forced to bend to public pressure.
beseech - beseeched/besought - besought/beseeched
- 1. to ask for something in an anxious way that shows you need it very much; beg
- - Stay a little longer, I beseech you!
bestrew - bestrewed - bestrewn/ bestrewed
- 1. to lie covering a surface, or to cover a surface with things that are far apart and in no particular arrangement
- - During the festival, the city streets are bestrewn with flowers.
bestride - bestrode - bestridden
- 1. to sit or stand with a leg on either side of an object or animal
- - He bestrode the chair as though it were a horse.
- 1. to risk money on the result of an event or a competition, such as a horse race, in the hope of winning more money
- - He regularly goes to the races and bets heavily.
- 2. informal If you say you bet (someone) that something is true or will happen, you mean you are certain that it is true or will happen [+ (that)]
- - I bet you (that) she's missed the bus.
- - I bet (that) he won't come.
bet - bet / betted - bet / betted
- 3. informal said to show that you understand why someone has a particular opinion or feels a particular way
- - "I'm so annoyed with her." "I'll bet."
- - "I was so relieved I didn't have to clean up after the party." "I bet you were."
- 1. (offer) to offer a particular amount of money for something which is for sale and compete against other people to buy it, especially at a public sale of goods or property
- - A foreign collector has bid £500 000 for the portrait.
bid - bid / bade - bid / bidden
- 2. If someone bids to do something, they compete with other people to do it
- - Paris is bidding to host the next Olympics.
- 1. (tie) to tie tightly or to fasten
- - They bound the packages with brightly coloured ribbon.
- - Bind together the two broken ends.
- 2. to unite people
- - The things which bind them together are greater than their differences.
- 3. To bind a part of the body, especially a part which is damaged, is to tie something round it
- - He had already bound the child's arm when I arrived.
- 4. to make separate pieces of paper into a book
- - There are several different ways to bind a book, for example you can stitch or stick the pages together.
bind - bound - bound
- 5. When an egg or water is used especially in cooking to bind something it provides a way of making everything stick together in a solid mass
- - The mixture wouldn't bind (together).
- 1. to use your teeth to cut into something or someone
- - He bit into the apple.
- 2. to have a bad or unpleasant effect
- - Higher mortgage rates are beginning to bite.
- 3. When a fish bites, it swallows the food on the hook at the end of a fishing line
- - The fish aren't biting today.
bite -bit - bitten
- 4. to show interest in buying something
- - The new service is now available but clients don't seem to be biting.
- 1. to lose blood
- - Your nose is bleeding.
bleed - bled - bled
- 2. bleed sb dry: to take a lot of money from someone over a period of time
- - The West is bleeding poorer countries dry through interest payments on their debts.
1. to ask for God's help and protection for someone or something, or to call or make someone or something holy
- 2. be blessed with sth (formal)
- - to be lucky in having a particular thingFortunately we were blessed with fine weather
bless - blessed /blest - blessed /blest
- 3. bless you!
- something you say to a person who has just sneezed
2. blow your nose
- 1. blow (SEND OUT AIR)
- - The letter blew away and I had to run after it.
- - Ann blew a few notes on the trumpet.
- 3. blow sb a kiss (also blow a kiss to/at sb)
- - to kiss your hand and blow on it in the direction of someone
- 4. blow the cobwebs away UK
- to get rid of feelings of tiredness, usually with fresh air or exercise
- - We went for a five-mile jog to blow the cobwebs away.
- 5. blow the whistle on sb/sth informal
- to cause something bad that someone is doing to stop, especially by bringing it to the attention of other people
- 6. blow (DESTROY)
- - His car had been blown to pieces.
blow - blew - blown
- 7. blow (BAD EVENT)
- an unexpected event that has a damaging effect on someone or something
- - Losing his job was a severe blow to his confidence.
- 1. break (DAMAGE)
- - I dropped the vase and it broke into pieces.
- 2. break your back informal
- to work extremely hard
- 3. break (END)
- - to destroy or end something, or to come to an end
- 4. break (INTERRUPT)
- to interrupt or to stop something for a brief period
- - We usually break for lunch at 12.30.
- 5. break (DIVIDE)
- to divide into two or more parts or groups
- - These enzymes break down food in the stomach
break - broke -broken
- 6. break (DISOBEY)
- to fail to keep a law, rule or promise
breed - bred - bred
- 1. breed
- to keep animals for the purpose of producing young animals in a controlled way, or (of animals) to have sex and reproduce
- - Terriers are bred for their fighting instincts.
- - The blackbird, like most birds, breeds in the spring.
bring - brought - brought
broadcast - broadcast - broadcast
(US ALSO broadcasted- broadcasted)
build - built built
burn - burnt/burned - burnt/burned
- 1. burst verb
- to break open or apart suddenly, or to make something do this
- - Balloons make me nervous - I hate it when they burst.
- 2. burst into song/tears/laughter
- to suddenly begin to sing/cry/laugh
- - Much to my surprise Ben suddenly burst into song.
- 3. burst out laughing/crying
- to suddenly start laughing/crying
- - I walked in and everyone burst out laughing.
- burst/bust (UK)/ busted (US)
- burst/ bust, (UK)/ busted (US)
1. buy (PAY FOR)
buy - bought - bought
- 2. buy (BELIEVE)
- believe that something is true
- - She'll never buy that story about you getting lost!
- 1. cast (ACTORS)
- to choose actors to play particular parts in a play, film or show
- - He was often cast as the villain.
- 2. cast (LIGHT)
- to send light or shadow in a particular direction
- - The moon cast a white light into the room.
- 3. cast (LOOK)
- cast a look/glance/smile/etc. to look/smile/etc. in a particular direction
- - She cast a quick look in the rear mirror.
- 4. cast (THROW)
- literary to throw something
- - The knight cast the sword far out into the lake.
- 5. cast pearls before swine
- to offer something valuable or good to someone who does not know its value
- 6. cast (DOUBT)
- cast doubt/suspicion on sb/sth to make people feel less sure about or have less trust in sth or so
- - New evidence has cast doubt on the guilty verdict.
cast - cast - cast
- 7. cast (REMEMBER)
- cast your mind back to try to remember- If you cast your mind back, you might recall that I never promised to go.
- 1. catch (TAKE HOLD)
- to take hold of something, especially something that is moving through the air
- - I managed to catch the glass before it hit the ground.
- 2. catch your breath
- to stop breathing for a moment, or to begin to breathe correctly again after running or other exercise
- - I had to sit down and catch my breath.
- 3. catch the sun
- If you have caught the sun, the sun has made your skin a slightly darker brown or red colour
- - You've caught the sun on the back of your neck.
catch (STOP ESCAPING)
- 5. catch (NOTICE)
- - I caught sight of/caught a glimpse of a red coat in the crowd.
- 6. catch (TRAVEL)
- - He always catches the 10.30am train to work.
- 7. catch (BE IN TIME)
- to manage to be in time to see or do something
- - I went home a bit early to catch the beginning of the programme.
- 8. catch (HEAR/SEE)
- to manage to hear something
- - I couldn't catch what the announcer said, with all the other noise going on.
- catch - caught - caught
- 1. choose
- to decide what you want from a range of things or possibilities
- - She had to choose between the two men in her life.
- 2. little/not much to choose between
- When there is little to choose between two or more things, they are (all) very similar.
choose - chose - chosen
- 3. choosy
- difficult to please because you are very exact about what you like
- - She's very choosy about what she eats and drinks.
- 1. cleave verb
- literary or old use to separate or divide, or cause something to separate or divide, often violently
- - With one blow of the knight's axe, he clove the rock in twain (= into two pieces).
- 2. cleaver noun
- a heavy knife with a large square blade
- - a meat cleaver
- 3. cleave to sth phrasal verb
- to stick or hold firmly onto something
- - The ancient ivy cleaved to the ruined castle walls.
- to continue to believe firmly in something
- - People in the remote mountain villages still cleave to their old traditions.
- cleaved/ clove
- cleaved/ cloven
- 1. cling (HOLD)
- to stick onto or hold sth. or s.o tightly, or to refuse to stop holding them
- - We got so wet that our clothes clung to us.
- 2. clingy adjective
- clingy materiala
- clingy skirt
- 3. cling (STAY CLOSE)
- to stay close or near
- - The road clings to the coastline for several miles, then it turns inland.
- to stay close to someone who is caring for you, in a dependent way
- - Jenny is the kind of child who always clings whenever she's taken to a new place.
- clinging adjective (also clingy) disapproving
- - Jimmy is a very clingy child.
- cling (on) to sth phrasal verb
- to try very hard to keep something
- - He clung on to power for another ten years.
cling - clung - clung
- cling to sth phrasal verb
- to refuse to stop believing or hoping for sth
- - She clings to the hope that her husband will come back to her.
- 1. come (MOVE TO SPEAKER)
- to move or travel towards the speaker or with the speaker
- - Are you coming with me?
- - There's a car coming!
- 2. come (ARRIVE)
- to get to a particular place
- - Has she come yet?
come - came - come
- 3. come (HAPPEN)
- - Spring has come early.
- 1. cost an arm and a leg/a small fortune
- (UK also cost a bomb/the earth/a packet)
- to be extremely expensive
- - I'd love to buy a Rolls-Royce, but they cost an arm and a leg.
- 2. cost sb a pretty penny to be very expensive
- - That coat must have cost you a pretty penny!
- cost/ costed
- cost/ costed
- 1. creep (MOVE SLOWLY) verb [I usually + adverb or preposition]
- - She turned off the light and crept through the door.
- 2. creeping adjective [before noun] disapproving happening, developing or moving slowly or gradually
- - We are totally against any form of creeping Socialism.
- 3. creep (PERSON) noun [C] informal1 UK someone who tries to make someone more important like them by being very polite and helpful in a way that is not sincere
- - Making coffee for the boss again? You creep!
- 4. an unpleasant person, especially a man
- - He was a real creep - he was always staring at me in the canteen.
- 5. creepy adjective informal
- strange or unnatural and making you feel frightened
- - a creepy film
- - a creepy smile
- 6. give sb the creeps
- to cause someone to have uncomfortable feelings of nervousness or fear
- - Living next to a graveyard would give me the creeps.
creep - crept - crept
- 7. creep in/creep into sth phrasal verb mainly UK
- If mistakes creep in or creep into a piece of text
- - A few mistakes always creep in during the editing process.
- - One or two typing errors crept into the report.
1. cut (USE KNIFE)
- 2. cut (REDUCE)
- to make something shorter, lower, smaller, etcto cut prices/coststo cut overtime/wages
- 3. cut sb down to size to show someone that they are not as clever or important as they think they are
- - Someone should cut that man down to size!
cut - cut - cut
- 4. to cut a long story short to not tell all the details
- - To cut a long story short, I got the job
1. deal (DO BUSINESS)
- 2. deal (AMOUNT) noun a good/great deal a large amount; much
- - She spends a good deal of her time in Glasgow.
- 3. deal
- to give or share out something, especially playing cards
- - Whose turn is it to deal?
- - Would you like to deal (out) the cards?
- 4. deal with sb (TALK TO) phrasal
- - She's used to dealing with difficult customers.
- 5. deal with sth
- to take action in order to achieve something or in order to solve a problem
- - How do you intend to deal with this problem?
deal - dealt - dealt
- 6. deal with sth (BE ABOUT) phrasal verb
- to be about or be on the subject of something
- - Her new film deals with the relationship between a woman and her sick daughter.
1. dig (MOVE EARTH)
- 2. dig your own grave
- to do sth. which causes you harm, sometimes serious harm
- 3. dig
- to search for an object or information or to find it after looking
- - He dug into his pocket and took out a few coins.
- 4. dig (deep) into your pocket(s)/savings
- to give away money
- - Richer countries must dig deeper into their pockets if global problems, such as pollution, are to be solved.
- 5. dig
- a remark which is intended to criticize, embarrass or make a joke about someone
- - He's always having/taking/making digs at me.
dig - dug - dug
- 6. dig in phrasal verb informal
- to start eating
- - The food's going cold - dig i
1. dive (MOVE DOWN)
- 2. dive (MOVE QUICKLY)
- to move quickly, often in order to avoid sth
- - They dived for cover when they heard the shooting start.
- 3. dive (PLACE) noun [C] informal
- a restaurant, hotel, bar or place for entertainment or social activities that is unpleasant because of the condition of the building or the type of people that go there
- - I know this place is a bit of a dive, but the drink's cheap and the food's great.
- dived, (US ALSO) dove
1. draw (PICTURE)
- 2. draw the line
- to never do sth because you think it is wrong
- - I swear quite a lot but even I draw the line at saying certain words.
- 3. draw (ATTRACT)
- to attract attention or interest
- - Does he wear those ridiculous clothes to draw attention?
- 4. draw your eye(s)
- to attract your attention
- - Her eyes were immediately drawn to the tall blond man standing at the bar.
- 5. draw (MAKE)
- to make or show a comparison between things
- - It's sometimes very difficult to draw a clear distinction between the meanings of different words.
draw - drew - drawn
- 6. draw a conclusion
- to consider the facts of a situation and make a decision about what is true, correct, likely to happen, etc
- work/go like a dream
- to work or go extremely well, without any problems
- - The whole plan went like a dream.
- of your dreams
- the best that you can imagine
- - Win the house of your dreams in our fantastic competition!
- be (living) in a dream world
- to have hopes and ideas which are not practical or realistic
- - If he thinks I'll forgive him, he's living in a dream world.
- dreamed, dreamt
- dreamed, dreamt
- 1. drink to sth phrasal verb
- If two or more people drink to something or someone, to show respect or good wishes
- 2. drink like a fish informal
- to drink too much alcohol
drink - drank - drunk
- 3. can't hold your drink (US usually can't hold your liquor)
- If you can't hold your drink, you feel ill quickly when you drink alcohol.
- 1. drive your message/point home
- to state sth in a very forceful and effective way
- - The speaker really drove his message home, repeating his main point several times.
drive - drove - driven
- 2. drive a wedge between sb
- to damage the good relationship that two people or groups of people have
- - It would be silly to let things which have happened in the past drive a wedge between us now.
- 1. dwell verb formal
- to live in a place or in a particular way
- - She dwelt in remote parts of Asia for many years.
- 2. dwell on sth phrasal verb
- to keep thinking or talking about sth, especially sth bad or unpleasant
- - In his speech, he dwelt on the plight of the sick and the hungry.
- dwelling noun [C] formal
- a house or place to live in
- - There is an estimated shortfall of some five million dwellings across the country.
- dwelt, dwelled
- dwelt, dwelled
eat - ate - eaten
- 1. eat your words
- to admit that sth you said before was wrong
- - Sam said it would never sell, but when he sees these sales figures he'll have to eat his words.
- 1. fall on deaf ears
- If a suggestion or warning falls on deaf ears, no one listens to it
- - Their appeals to release the hostages fell on deaf ears.
- fall - fell - fallen
- 1. feed sb to the lions
- to force someone to do something unpleasant or dangerous that they do not want to do
- 2. be like feeding time at the zoo humorous
- to be very noisy, untidy and lacking order
- - Tea-time in our house is like feeding time at the zoo!
- feed - fed - fed
- 1. be/feel under the weather informal
- to be or feel ill
- - I'm feeling a bit under the weather - I think I've caught a cold.
- feel - felt - felt
- 1. fight tooth and nail
- to try very hard to get something you want
- We fought tooth and nail to get the route of the new road changed.
fight - fought - fought
- 1. find fault with sb/sth
- to criticize someone or something, especially without good reasons
- - He's always finding fault with my work.
find - found - found
- 2. find your feet
- to become familiar with and confident in a new situation
- - Did it take you long to find your feet when you started your new job?
- 1. flee the country
- to quickly go to another country in order to escape from something or someone
- It is likely that the suspects have fled the country by now.
flee - fled - fled
1. fling (THROW)
- 2. fling (MOVE/DO)
- to move or do sth quickly and energetically
- - She flung her arms around his neck.
fling - flung - flung
- 3. fling up your hands
- to show that you are very shocked or frightened
- - They flung up their hands in horror at the cost of the trip.
- 1. fly into a rage (UK also fly into a temper/fury)
- to suddenly become very angry
- - I asked to speak to her boss and she just flew into a rage.
fly - flew - flown
- 2. fly off the handle
- to react in a very angry way to something that someone says or does
- - He's extremely irritable - he flies off the handle at the slightest thing.
- 1. heaven forbid (also God forbid)
- a way of saying that you hope something does not happen
- - Heaven forbid (that) his parents should ever find out.
- 2. forbidden fruit
- literary sth, especially something sexual, which has a greater attraction because it is not allowed
- - He was always drawn to other men's wives - the forbidden fruit.
- forbade, forbad
forecast - forecasted, forecast - forecasted, forecast
foresee - foresaw - foreseen
- 1. in/for the foreseeable future
- as far into the future as you can imagine or plan for
- - I'll certainly carry on living here for the foreseeable future.
- 1. and don't you forget it
- used to tell someone that a particular fact is important and it should influence the way they behave
- - I've been in the job longer than you and don't you forget it!
forget - forgot - forgotten
- 2. not forgetting
- - This is where we keep all the books, not forgetting the magazines and newspapers.
- To err is human (to forgive divine).
- saying something that you say which means that it is natural for people to make mistakes and it is important to forgive people when they do
forgive - forgave - forgiven
forgo - forwent - forgone
forsake - forsook forsaken
forswear - forswore - forsworn
freeze - froze - frozen
gainsay - gainsaid - gainsaid
- 1. gainsay verb [T often in negatives] formal
- to refuse to accept something as the truth
- - Certainly there's no gainsaying (= It is not possible to doubt) the technical brilliance of his performance.
get - got - got, (US ALSO) gotten
- 1. gird verb
- old use to tie something around your body or part of your body
gird - girded, girt - girded, girt
- 2. gird yourself (also gird (up) your loins) literary or humorous
- to get ready to do something or deal with somethingWe girded ourselves for the fray (= prepared for action or trouble).
- - Europe's finest golfers are girding their loins for the challenge of the Ryder Cup.
grind - ground - ground
- 1. grind (MAKE SMALLER)
- to make something into small pieces or a powder by pressing between hard surfaces
- - to grind coffee