Immunology 3

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Immunology 3
2010-02-10 14:24:32
immunology 3 usp james donaldson zinc

Immunology 3
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  1. True or False?
    The epitopes of an immunogen collectively signify its genetic origin.
  2. True or False?
    Only specific cells or molecules in our body and in nature contain epitopes on their surface.
  3. In the immune response, epitopes of an immunogen are presented to which type of cell?
    T-helper cells.
  4. List the different types of T-cells.
    • 1.) T-helper cells - TH0, TH1, TH2
    • 2.) Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLS)
    • 3.) T-regulatory cells
  5. What are the targets of CTL's?
    • 1.) Virally infected cells
    • 2.) Transformed cells (pre-cancerous or cancerous)
  6. True or False?
    The role of a CTL is to destroy an infected cell (virally invaded or transformed) before it proliferates.
  7. The immune system of an average individual has been overrun when the number of cancerous cells has reached about _____________.
    1 million.
  8. What is the role of T-regulatory (TR) cells?
    To bring specific immune responses to a close.
  9. Why is it important for the body to stop any given immune response when it is no longer needed?
    It is extremely energy expensive.
  10. What is an APC and which cells make up this category?
    • An Antigen presenting cell.
    • These are Macrophages, dendritic cells, and B-cells.
  11. What is the function of APC's?
    To present immunogen epitopes to the appropriate T-helper cells.
  12. What is an appropriate T-helper cell?
    A T-helper cell that has surface structures (T-cell receptors, TCR's) complimentary to the epitope(s) on the IDP.
  13. How many appropriate T-helper cells might an individual have for any given epitope?
    A very small number - around 6 to 20.
  14. True or False?
    Most healthy humans have the genetic ability to respond to about 1,000 different epitopes.
    • False.
    • The number is more close to 1,000,000 (a conservative value) - made at random.
  15. True or False?
    An appropriate T-cell can migrate to the point of an infection in about a day.
    • False.
    • T-cells circulating in the blood can arrive at the site of an infection in minutes.
  16. Macrophages primarily reside in the ___________, while dendritic cells reside in the ______________.
    • 1.) Blood
    • 2.) Tissues (immune organs, skin, MALT)
  17. Innate defenses and phagocytosis are (specific / non-specific), while an immune response is (specific / non-specific).
    • 1.) Non-specific
    • 2.) Specific
  18. Which type of T-helper cell interacts directly with an APC at the beginning of an immune response.
    T-helper 0 (TH0).
  19. Why are TH0 cells also known as "naive" or "virgin" cells?
    They have never before participated in an immune response.
  20. What are the two possible immune responses from TH0 cells?
    • 1.) Humoral
    • 2.) Cell-mediated
  21. Which type of T-helper cell (derived from a TH0) carry out a humoral response? A cell mediated response?
    • 1.) T-helper 1 cells (TH1).
    • 2.) T-helper 2 cells (TH2).
  22. What cells/system decides whether a humoral or cell-mediated response is needed?
    The APC, probably by direction from immune monitoring system.
  23. Which type of immune response results in antibodies that circulate through the various body fluids? Which type of T-helper cell is involved?
    • 1.) A humoral response
    • 2.) TH2 cell
  24. List some of the body's fluids.
    • 1.) Blood
    • 2.) Lymph
    • 3.) Saliva
    • 4.) Tears
    • 5.) Gastro-intestinal juices
    • 6.) Vaginal
  25. True or False?
    Antibodies are small enough to be lost in the urine.
  26. Immunogens that circulate through the body will receive which type of immune response?
    A humoral response.
  27. What term describes a protein that binds to a specific epitope?
    An antibody.
  28. Which type of immune response results in Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL's) that handle localized infections in the body? Which type of T-helper cell is involved?
    • 1.) A cell mediated response
    • 2.) TH1 cells
  29. The CTL's in a cell mediated immune response are responsible for attacking what type of immunogen?
    CTL's bind to your own cells that are virally infected or genetically transformed.
  30. True or False?
    A particular virus can enter any cell of your body.
    • False.
    • The cell must contain correct surface structures that are complementary to the viral docking proteins.