Chapter Two consumer health
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Consumers who wish to make intelligent decisions about health matters must address several questions:
- What are the scientific facts?
- How can they be identified?
- To what extent should people believe what they read and hearr?
- Where can valid information be found?
Reliable health information comes primarily through ?
exposing hypothesis (assumptions) to critical examination and testing.
Hypotheses are scientific only if they are _____ and can ____ measurable events?
The three noteworthy characteristics of the Scientific Method are?
- requires objectivity
- experiments must be reproducible
Self-Correcting: this method produces conclusions that studies may modify. You can add on more information.
Objectivity: Findings must not
be contaminated by the personal beliefs, perceptions, biases, values, or
emotions of the researcher.
Reproducible: To be valid, on researcher's findings must be repeatable by others.
Reports that are personal observations that have not been made under strict experiemental conditions. Researchers can use it for suggesting new hypotheses, but never for supporting evidence.
_____ search for "risk markers" (predictors of disease) by comparing people with different characteristics.
personal characteristics (weight or cholesterol levels)
personal activities (taking vitamins, exercising regularly)
environmental factors (inhaling radon gas or smoke)
Is the relationship casual or coincidental?
- the strength of the asscociation
- the consistency of the association in different studies
- whether it is clear the risk marker preceeded the disease
- whether the dose and not just the mere presence of the marker predicts disease risk
- whether or not it appears logical that the marker is responsible
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