History of the Brain

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History of the Brain
2010-02-04 21:33:02
brain history

Neuroscience 301 Exam 1
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  1. What is trepanation and what are its uses?
    drilling into the skull, may have helped relieve headaches or cure mental disorders
  2. What were the prevailing thoughts and hypothesies on the nervous system through history?
    • Egyptians: heart was the soul of the body
    • Greeks: brain was a sensory organ
    • Romans: regional specialization
    • Renaissance: brain was a fluid-like machine
  3. Who were the leading historical figures studying the nervous system?
    Hippocrates, Aristotle, Galen, Vesalius, Descartes, Galvani, Bell, Gall, Flourens, Broca
  4. What did Hippocrates propose was the purpose of the brain?
    brain was the seat of intelligence, involved in sensation
  5. Aristotle's view of the brain
    heart was the center of intellect, brain cooled blood
  6. Gall's view of the function of the brain
    Bell believed the bumps on the skull corresponded with personality
  7. Flourens view of the brain?
    cerebrum and cerebellum have different functions
  8. What were the 4 key insights into the brain during the 1800s?
    • nerves are like fibers
    • regional specializtion
    • evoltion of the nervous system
    • the neuron
  9. What experiments suggested that nerves function as wires??
    Galvani shocked corpses and showed that muscles can be twitched and that the brain can generate electricity
  10. How did Paul Broca's work contribue to our understanding of brain function?
    • Broca's patient couldn't speak, after the disection, the brain was found to have a legion on an area necessary for speeh
    • Helped prove that parts of the brain do different things
  11. What are the three main components of the nervous system?
    • brain
    • spinal chord
    • nerves
  12. How did the observations of Charles Darwin contribute to the study of the brain?
    Observation of Darwin illustrated that evolution did occur and that humans were also animals. This opened the idea of an animal model, and that certain animals would have brain specialization for certain characterisitcs
  13. What is the cell theory?
    All living tissue is made up of cells
  14. What are the most commonly attributed cognitive functions given to the frontal lobe?
    planning responses
  15. What is the most commonly attributed function to the pariatial lobe?
  16. What is the most commonly attributed function to the occipital lobe?
  17. What is the most commonly attributed function to the temporal lobe?
  18. Structures most associated with the diencephalon
    thalmus and hypthalmus
  19. Mesencephalon
  20. Structures most associated with the metencephalon
    pons and cerebellum
  21. Structure most associated with the mylencephalon
  22. Which brain structures are considered part of the brainstem?
    mesencephalon, metecephalon, mylencephalon
  23. What are the brain ventricles and what do they contain?
    The lateral ventricals, and 3rd and 4th ventricles are filled with CSF
  24. Brain region associated with the lateral ventricles
    cerebral cortex
  25. Brain regions associated with the third ventricle
    thalmus and hypothalmus
  26. Brain regions associated with the fourth ventricle
    cerebellum, pons, medulla
  27. Choroid plexus
    tissue in the ventricles (lateral ventrical specifically) that is responsible for the production of CSF
  28. Production and flow of CSF
    Lateral ventrical...3rd ventricle...cerebral aqueduct... 4th ventricle... spinal canal... subarachnoid space... blood vessels at archnoid villi
  29. arachnoid villi
    located in the subarachnoid space responsible for the reabsorption of CSF
  30. hydrocephaly
    build up of CSF on the brain
  31. dura mater
    external covering of the brain, hard, outer protection layer
  32. 3 layers of the meninges
    • dura mater
    • arachnoid membrane
    • pia mater
  33. dura mater
    hard mother, outer layer of protection
  34. subdural space
    space below the dura mater
  35. arachnoid membrane
    means 'spider', thin, see-through layer
  36. subarachnoid space
    below the arachnoid membrane, blood suppy and space for CSF
  37. pia mater
    soft mother, single cell thick
  38. Location of the CSF
    CSF is found in the subarachnoid space
  39. internal carotid artery
    supplies most of the blood supply to the brain
  40. vertabral arteries
    supply spinal chord with blood
  41. What is a stroke?
    a stroke is caused by a disturbance of blood supply in the brain, localized ischemia and lack of O2
  42. What is a brain ischemia
    loss supply of blood to the brain that is due to obstruction of the inflow of arterial blood
  43. 3 main types of stroke
    • thrombotic
    • embolic
    • hemmoragic
  44. Thromotic storke
    reduced blood flow due to a build up of plaque; typically widespread
  45. Embolic stroke
    reduced blood flow due to an object getting lodged in a smaller vessle
  46. Hemmorrhagic stroke
    blood vessel ruptures
  47. neurulation
    forming of the dorsal nerve chord and the forming of CNS
  48. anencephaly
    forebrain doesn't develope
  49. spinabifida
    end of spinal column issues
  50. 3 nervous system regions present at the 3 vesicle stage during development
    • prosencephalon
    • mesencephalon
    • rhombencephalon